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Range DescriptionThis red howler monkey extends west from the lower Rio Madeira (left bank) and the Rio Aripuanã across the basin of the Rio Purus to the Rios Juruá and Envira, as postulated by Gregorin (2006). It occurs in northern Rondônia, but the southern limits to its range in Brazil are unclear. It is not clear whether it is the form in north-west Bolivia and far south-eastern Peru in the basins of the upper Purus, Madre de Dios and Tampopata. According to Anderson (1997), only Alouatta sara occurs in Bolivia. Aquino and Encarnacion (1994a) did not consider subspecies or any species other than A. seniculus. Red howlers occur throughout the Peruvian Amazon from the Río Inamabari in the far south-east, along the Rio Urubamba, through the Pachitea to the right (east) bank of the Rio Huallaga, north accompanying the Cordillera to cross the Río Marañón, extending into Ecuador along the Río Santiago (left bank). According to Gregorin (2006), the west (left) bank the Rio Juruá and Envira is taken up by A. juara. For this reason, the Río Inuya may be the northern limit to A. puruensis in Peru.