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Range DescriptionThis red howler monkey extends west from the lower Rio Madeira (left bank) and the Rio AripuanÃ£ across the basin of the Rio Purus to the Rios JuruÃ¡ and Envira, as postulated by Gregorin (2006). It occurs in northern RondÃ´nia, but the southern limits to its range in Brazil are unclear. It is not clear whether it is the form in north-west Bolivia and far south-eastern Peru in the basins of the upper Purus, Madre de Dios and Tampopata. According to Anderson (1997), only Alouatta sara occurs in Bolivia. Aquino and Encarnacion (1994a) did not consider subspecies or any species other than A. seniculus. Red howlers occur throughout the Peruvian Amazon from the RÃo Inamabari in the far south-east, along the Rio Urubamba, through the Pachitea to the right (east) bank of the Rio Huallaga, north accompanying the Cordillera to cross the RÃo MaraÃ±Ã³n, extending into Ecuador along the RÃo Santiago (left bank). According to Gregorin (2006), the west (left) bank the Rio JuruÃ¡ and Envira is taken up by A. juara. For this reason, the RÃo Inuya may be the northern limit to A. puruensis in Peru.