Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Small tree, to 5 m. Leaves alternate, ovate; base cordate; apex acuminate. Inflorescence a terminal panicle. Sepals 5. Petals 5, pink. Fruit a spiny ovoid capsule.
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Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records:25
Specimens with Sequences:24
Specimens with Barcodes:23
Species:4
Species With Barcodes:3
Public Records:6
Public Species:2
Public BINs:0
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Wikipedia

Bixa

Bixa is a genus of plants in the family Bixaceae. It is native to Mexico, Central America, and South America, and naturalized in other places.[1][2][3][4]

Bixa is a tall shrub to small evergreen tree 6-10 m high. It bears clusters of 5-cm bright white to pink flowers, resembling single wild roses, appearing at the tips of the branches. The fruits are in clusters: spiky looking red-brown seed pods covered in soft spines. The fleshy fruit is the source of orange henna or annatto dye, made from its pulp. The leaves are broad, smooth, heart-shaped, ovate and lush green, 18 cm long. For centuries, an orange dye extracted from the seed coverings has been used as body paint by South American Indians, and before synthetic dyes revolutionized industry, the tree was planted commercially for the same dye, which was used to color cheese, margarine, chocolate, fabric and paints - and of course, lipstick, hence the popular name. The plant is also valued for its stem fibre (used in rope mats) and an adhesive gum which is extracted from all parts. [5][6][7][8]

Cultivation[edit]

Grown easily and quickly in frost-free regions, from sub-tropical to tropical climates, and sheltered from cool winds. It prefers year-round moisture, good drainage, and moderately fertile soil in full sun or partial shade. Cutting-grown plants flower at a younger age than seedlings. Propagate from seed and cuttings.[9]

Species[1]
  1. Bixa arborea Huber - Brazil, Ecuador, Peru
  2. Bixa excelsa Gleason & Krukoff - Peru, northwestern Brazil
  3. Bixa orellana L. - widespread from Mexico to Argentina; naturalized in West Indies, parts of Africa, India, Sri Lanka, Christmas Island, Hawaii, Society Islands
  4. Bixa platycarpa Ruiz & Pav. ex G.Don - Ecuador, Peru, northwestern Brazil
  5. Bixa urucurana Willd. - Honduras, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, the Guianas, Ecuador, Peru, northwestern Brazil

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  2. ^ Forzza, R. C. 2010. Lista de espécies Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010. Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro
  3. ^ Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., R. D. C. Ortiz, R. Callejas Posada & M. Merello. (eds.) 2011. Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 9–939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín
  4. ^ Molina Rosito, A. 1975. Enumeración de las plantas de Honduras. Ceiba 19(1): 1–118.
  5. ^ Ellison, Don (1999) Cultivated Plants of the World. London: New Holland (1st ed.: Brisbane: Flora Publications International, 1995)
  6. ^ Graf, Alfred Byrd (1986) Tropica: color cyclopedia of exotic plants and trees for warm-region horticulture--in cool climate the summer garden or sheltered indoors; 3rd ed. East Rutherford, N.J.: Roehrs Co
  7. ^ Botanica Sistematica
  8. ^ Macoboy, Stirling (1979) What Tree is That?, Sydney, Australia (1st ed.: Sydney: Ure Smith). ISBN 0-7254-0480-9
  9. ^ Lord, Tony (2003) Flora : The Gardener's Bible : More than 20,000 garden plants from around the world. London: Cassell. ISBN 0-304-36435-5
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