Overview

Distribution

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Gaultheria L.:
Argentina (South America)
Australia (Oceania)
Bolivia (South America)
Brazil (South America)
Canada (North America)
Chile (South America)
China (Asia)
Colombia (South America)
Costa Rica (Mesoamerica)
Ecuador (South America)
Guyana (South America)
Japan (Asia)
Mexico (Mesoamerica)
New Zealand (Oceania)
Peru (South America)
Malaysia (Asia)
United States (North America)
Venezuela (South America)
Caribbean (Caribbean)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:434Public Records:279
Specimens with Sequences:423Public Species:97
Specimens with Barcodes:418Public BINs:0
Species:98         
Species With Barcodes:98         
          
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Barcode data

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Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Gaultheria

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Wikipedia

Gaultheria mucronata

Gaultheria mucronata (Chilean Spanish: chaura), syn. Pernettya mucronata, is a species of flowering plant in the family Ericaceae, native to southern Argentina and Chile.[1] It is a compact, bushy, evergreen shrub with glossy green leaves and solitary white flowers in spring, followed in autumn by showy globose berries up to 1.5 cm in diameter, in shades from deep plum purple through pink to pure white. It is dioecious, meaning that both male and female plants must be grown together in order to produce fruit. It prefers moist, shaded conditions.

Its fruits are edible when ripe, they are sweet and juicy but somewhat tasteless, hence useful as survival food. In volcanic areas of southern Chile Gaultheria mucronata is one of the dominant plant species above the tree line.

Numerous cultivars have been selected for garden use, of which the following have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:-

  • 'Bell's Seedling'[2] (deep red fruit)
  • 'Crimsonia'[3] (large crimson fruits)
  • 'Mulberry Wine'[4] (purple fruit)

References[edit]

  1. ^ U.S. Department of Agriculture (2008) Gaultheria mucronata [1]
  2. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Gaultheria mucronata 'Bell's Seedling'". Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  3. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Gaultheria mucronata 'Crimsonia'". Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  4. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Gaultheria mucronata 'Mulberry Wine'". Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
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Gaultheria

Gaultheria is a genus of about 170-180 species of shrubs in the family Ericaceae. The name memorializes Jean François Gaultier of Quebec, a mis-spelt honour bestowed by the Scandinavian Pehr Kalm in 1748.[1] These plants are native to Asia, North and South America, and Australasia. In the past, the Southern Hemisphere species were often treated in a separate genus Pernettya; however, there is no consistent reliable morphological or genetic difference to support recognition of two genera, and they are now united in the single genus Gaultheria.

The species vary from low, ground-hugging shrubs less than 10 cm tall, up to 2.5 m tall, or, in the case of G. fragrantissima from the Himalaya, even a small tree up to 5–6 m tall. The leaves are evergreen, alternate (opposite in G. oppositifolia from New Zealand), simple, and vary between species from 0.3–10 cm long; the margins are finely serrated or bristly in most species, but entire in some. The flowers are solitary or in racemes, bell-shaped, with a five-lobed corolla; flower colour ranges from white to pink to red. The fruit is a fleshy berry in many species, a dry capsule in some, with numerous small seeds.

Uses [edit]

Several species are grown as ornamental shrubs in gardens, particularly G. mucronata (Pernettya mucronata) from southern Chile and Argentina and G. shallon (Salal) from the Pacific Northwest of North America. Many of the smaller species are suitable for rock gardens. Like most other ericaceous plants, gaultheria does best in a peaty soil that never fully dries out.

The fruit of many gaultherias is edible, particularly that of salal, which makes an excellent jelly. Wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens) is the traditional source of wintergreen flavouring; its leaves can be used to make a tea, and its berries eaten as-is. The fruit of most other gaultheria species is insipid in flavour and not extensively consumed.

Gaultheria yunnanensis shows anti-inflammatory properties and is used in Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, swelling and pain.[2]

Selected species [edit]

References [edit]

  1. ^ Bernard Boivin: GAULTIER (Gautier, Gauthier, or Gaulthier, but he signed Gaultier), JEAN-FRANÇOIS. In: Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online
  2. ^ Zhang D, Liu R, Sun L, Huang C, Wang C, Zhang DM, Zhang TT, Du G.,"Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Methyl Salicylate Glycosides Isolated from Gaultheria yunnanensis (Franch.) Rehder." Molecules. 2011;16(5):3875-84
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