Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology: Nematocysts

More info
LocationImageCnidae TypeRange of
Lengths (m)
Range of
Widths (m)
nNState
Carlgren O., 1951
Acontia
N/A basitrichs or microbasic b-mastigophores  26.8 - 32  x  2.8 -   / Unfired
N/A microbasic amastigophores  46.5 - 55  x  5.6 - 6.3  / Unfired
Actinopharynx
N/A basitrichs  23.3 - 31  x  2.8 - 4  / Unfired
Column
N/A basitrichs  26.8 - 35.2  x  5 - 6.6  / Unfired
N/A microbasic p-mastigophores or amastigophores  19.7 - 24  x  3.5 - 4.2  / Unfired
Column
N/A basitrichs  26.8 - 35.2  x  5 - 6.6  / Unfired
Filaments
N/A microbasic p-mastigophores  11.3 - 18.3  x  4.2 - 6.3  / Unfired
Tentacles
N/A microbasic p-mastigophores?  14.8 - 19  x  3 - 3.5  / Unfired
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© Hexacorallians of the World

Source: Hexacorallians of the World

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Biology/Natural History: These anemones live many years. This species does not seem to reproduce asexually, as does M. senile. It is said to be solitary, but I have frequently seen it in aggregations on Sares Head, though perhaps not as tightly packed together as one sees with M. senile on docks. The acontia do not sting the skin but could definitely sting the eyes or tongue. This species, which can be up to 1 m tall when extended, is said to be the world's tallest polyp.

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© Rosario Beach Marine Laboratory

Source: Invertebrates of the Salish Sea

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This anemone is white, brick red-orange, or brown. It can be up to 1 m tall when extended and has more than 100 long, slender tentacles, except in small individuals The edges of the oral disk are prominently lobed. The column has acontia, which may be shot out when disturbed (photo); but does not have tubercles. Height to 50 cm and crown diameter to 25 cm. Taller than wide when fully extended, but can change its proportions dramatically. This species has only recently been distinguished from Metridium senile. Gotshall (1994) states that this species is exclusively white but I have seen orange and brown individuals much larger than 10 cm tall, and other authors also report colored forms. Brown individuals seem more common in California than in the Pacific Northwest.
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© Rosario Beach Marine Laboratory

Source: Invertebrates of the Salish Sea

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Distribution

Geographical Range: Alaska to Santa Catalina Island, CA. Especially common in Puget Sound, the San Juan Islands, and the Strait of Georgia.

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© Rosario Beach Marine Laboratory

Source: Invertebrates of the Salish Sea

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Physical Description

Type Information

Paratype for Metridium farcimen (Brandt, 1836)
Catalog Number: USNM 85789
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Alcohol (Ethanol)
Year Collected: 1912
Locality: San Francisco Bay, Outside Golden Gate Bridge, California, United States, North Pacific Ocean
Depth (m): 84 to 84
Vessel: Albatross R/V
  • Paratype: Wasmann J Biol. 47(1-2): 77-85.
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Holotype for Isometridium rickettsi Carlgren
Catalog Number: USNM 49458
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Alcohol (Ethanol)
Collector(s): E. Ricketts
Year Collected: 1940
Locality: S Of Guaymas, Mexico, Gulf of California, North Pacific Ocean
  • Holotype:
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Look Alikes

How to Distinguish from Similar Species: Metridium senile has a similar form and coloration but grows only up to about 10 cm tall, has less than 100 tentacles, and the oral disk is not prominently lobed.
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© Rosario Beach Marine Laboratory

Source: Invertebrates of the Salish Sea

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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 602 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 17 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 505.03
  Temperature range (°C): 2.492 - 10.151
  Nitrate (umol/L): 6.725 - 31.830
  Salinity (PPS): 31.893 - 34.038
  Oxygen (ml/l): 2.115 - 6.686
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.943 - 2.595
  Silicate (umol/l): 15.658 - 48.841

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 505.03

Temperature range (°C): 2.492 - 10.151

Nitrate (umol/L): 6.725 - 31.830

Salinity (PPS): 31.893 - 34.038

Oxygen (ml/l): 2.115 - 6.686

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.943 - 2.595

Silicate (umol/l): 15.658 - 48.841
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth range based on 4 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 80 - 256
  Temperature range (°C): 7.198 - 7.198
  Nitrate (umol/L): 17.724 - 17.724
  Salinity (PPS): 32.592 - 32.592
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.808 - 4.808
  Phosphate (umol/l): 1.935 - 1.935
  Silicate (umol/l): 45.785 - 45.785

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 80 - 256
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth Range: Subtidal to at least 200 m; occasionally found intertidally.

Habitat: Attached to rocks, floating docks, and pilings.

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Source: Invertebrates of the Salish Sea

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Metridium farcimen

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 14
Species With Barcodes: 1
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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Wikipedia

Metridium farcimen

Metridium farcimen is a species of sea anemone in the family Metridiidae. It is commonly known as the giant plumose anemone or white-plumed anemone. It is found on the western seaboard of the United States and Canada and in deep water sites especially where the water is slow moving.[2]

Contents

Taxonomy

In 1990, Fautin et al. examined the validity of the name Metridium giganteum. A further study in 2000 concluded that Actinia priapus; Tilesius, 1809, Actinia farcimen; Brandt, 1835, and Isometridium rickettsi; Carlgren, 1949 were all synonyms of Metridium giganteum. Of these, Actinia farcimen was the name first published. It is, however, a junior homonym so the valid name for the species is Metridium farcimen; (Brandt, 1835).[3][4] The World Register of Marine Species attributes the name Metridium farcimen to (Tilesius, 1809) and gives Isometridium rickettsi; Carlgren, 1949, as the only synonym.[1]

Description

Metridium farcimen is a large sea anemone, occasionally reaching a height of one metre (39 in) when fully extended.[2] More usually it is 50 cm (20 in) or less in height but is very variable in shape. It can retract its tentacles and form a ball up to 25 cm (10 in) in diameter. The column is slender, smooth and studded with acontia. These are openings through which thread-like nematocysts from inside the body wall can protrude. There are no tubercles and the column is topped by a parapet. The oral disc is lobed and deeply convoluted at the edge and bears well over 100 fine, short, tapering tentacles. The colour is generally opaque white, but orange, salmon and brown specimens sometimes occur.[2] Large specimens have been seen to have long, thick, fighting tentacles, used to drive away other anemones trying to settle too close.[5] In large colonies that all emanate from one individual by cloning, individuals on the edge of the colony may have several of these fighting tentacles on their lips which they use to repel other, non-clonal anemones.[6] Metridium farcimen might be confused with Metridium senile which occupies the same habitat and has a similar colour and form, but that species seldom exceeds 10 cm (4 in) in height, has fewer than 100 tentacles and has an unlobed oral disc.[2]

Distribution

Metridium farcimen is found on the western seaboard of the United States and Canada. Its range extends from Alaska southwards to California. It is at its most common in Puget Sound and around Vancouver Island.[2] It is found in the sublittoral zone on rocks, mollusc shells, pilings, docks and other man-made structures and even in polluted waters.[5] It is also found at great depths, near hydrothermal vents, cold water seeps and decomposing whale carcases on the seabed.[1]

Biology

Metridium farcimen is a carnivore. It captures small invertebrates, zooplankton and other food particles with the nematocysts on its tentacles and thrusts them into the mouth in the centre of its oral disc. Large anemones have few predators but smaller specimens are eaten by the starfish, Pisaster spp., and by various nudibranchs. The starfish, Dermasterias imbricata, has been observed feeding on larger anemones in Puget Sound.[6][7]

Reproduction takes place with the liberation of eggs and sperm from the gonads embedded in the body wall which are then ejected through the mouth. Fertilised eggs develop into planula larvae. After several moults, these settle and metamorphose into polyps. Asexual reproduction can also take place by laceration. When the anemone crawls around it may leave bits of tissue behind which can develop into new individuals.[6]

Metridium farcimen is a long lived species.[2] A plumose anemone in this genus is reported to have lived for nearly 100 years in an aquarium, and even after that time, the cause of death was equipment failure rather than old age.[8]

References

  1. ^ a b c Metridium farcimen - (Tilesius, 1809) World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 2011-11-24.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Metridium giganteum; Fautin, Bucklin, and Hand, 1989 WallaWalla. Retrieved 2011-11-24.
  3. ^ Fautin, Daphne G., Hand, Cadet (2000). "Metridium farcimen, the valid name of a common North Pacific sea anemone (Cnidaria: Actiniaria: Acontiaria)". Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 113 (4): 1151–1161. Retrieved 2011-11-24. 
  4. ^ Metridium giganteum Fautin, Bucklin and Hand, 1990 ITIS. Retrieved 2011-11-24.
  5. ^ a b Metridium farcimen (Brandt, 1835) Actiniaria.com. Retrieved 2011-11-24.
  6. ^ a b c Metridium farcimen Race Rocks. Retrieved 2011-11-24.
  7. ^ Metridium giganteum Evergreen Natural History Database. Retrieved 2011-11-24.
  8. ^ Metridium Anemones Emerald Sea Photography. Retrieved 2011-11-24.
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