History in the United States
Japanese wisteria was introduced from Japan around 1830 as an ornamental. It has been grown extensively in the southern U.S. as a decorative addition to porches, gazebos, walls, and gardens. Most infestations in natural areas are a result of escapes from landscape plantings.
History in the United States
Regularity: Regularly occurring
As their names imply, Japanese and Chinese wisteria are native to Japan and China, respectively . Chinese wisteria was brought to the United States for horticultural purposes in 1816 , while Japanese wisteria was introduced around 1830 . Wisterias are used extensively in the southern and mid-Atlantic states to adorn porches, gazebos, walls, gardens and parks, and most infestations in natural areas are the result of plants escaping from such settings . As of 2009, distributional maps of the United States show wisterias concentrated in the southeast, with spotty distributions to the north and west. Japanese wisteria is found as far west as Texas, east to Florida, north to Maine, and west to Illinois. Chinese wisteria is found as far west as Texas, east to Florida, north to Vermont, and west to Michigan. Chinese wisteria also occurs in Hawaii. The high rate of hybridization in wisteria plants in the southeastern states [35,36] may make distribution maps for the individual species suspect. Plants Database provides current distribution maps for both Japanese and Chinese wisteria.
Distribution in the United States
Japanese wisteria has been reported to be invasive in the mid-Atlantic and Southeast from Tennessee to South Carolina north to New Jersey and by six national parks in that area. Its distribution may span a much larger area as it is often misidentified as Chinese wisteria which is reported to occur from Louisiana to Massachusetts. Identification of these two very similar looking exotic species is difficult and frequently confused.
Distribution and Habitat in the United States
This description provides characteristics that may be relevant to fire ecology and is not meant for identification. Keys for identification are available (e.g., ).
Both Japanese and Chinese wisteria are showy, ornamental perennial lianas that commonly climb, twine, or trail on the ground [21,34]. Chinese wisteria is also occasionally described as a shrub [8,19]. Both species have been observed 65 feet (20 m) high in the canopy , and there are records of vines 70 feet (21 m) long . The species look similar to each other and can be difficult to distinguish because they hybridize [21,35]. One way to differentiate the species is by examining the direction of vine twining; Chinese wisteria vines twine clockwise, while Japanese wisteria vines twine counter-clockwise .
Roots: One flora describes Chinese wisteria roots as few but "deeply penetrating" .
Stems: Stems of older wisteria plants can grow 15 inches (38 cm) in diameter, and have infrequent, alternate branches .
Leaves: Compound leaves of wisterias are about 1 foot (0.3 m) in length and alternate along the stem. Japanese wisteria leaves consist of 13 to 19 leaflets, while Chinese wisteria leaves consist of 7 to 13 leaflets .
Flowers: Wisteria flowers are dangling and showy, blue-violet, and are borne on racemes. Racemes are 4 to 20 inches (10-50 cm) long and 3 to 4 inches (7-10 cm) wide. All Chinese wisteria flowers bloom at the same time, while Japanese wisteria flowers bloom in sequence, starting at the base .
Fruits: Wisteria fruits are velvety brown seed pods, 4 to 6 inches (10-15 cm) long, narrowed toward the base, with constrictions in the pods that separate the seeds . Each pod contains 1 to 8 flat, round, brown seeds, each 0.5 to 1 inch (1.2-2.5 cm) in diameter .
Japanese wisteria is a deciduous, woody ornamental vine that climbs trees high into the canopy, to more than 60 feet. It twines upwards in a counter-clockwise direction. The stems are slender, brown and densely pubescent when young, becoming hairless with age. Older plants can grow to 15 in. or more in diameter. The leaves are alternate and compound, 8-12 in. long, with 7-17 (19) leaflets which are egg-shaped and have slightly wavy margins. In the mid-Atlantic region flowering occurs in April before the leaves expand. Flowers are violet to violet blue, occur in pendulous racemes (clusters) 1-3 ft in length and open sequentially from the base to the tip. The flowers are 0.6-0.7 in. long on stalks (pedicels) 0.6-0.8 in. long. Fruits are velvety pods 4.5-7.5 in. long, broader towards the tip, and contain 3-6 glossy orbicular violet purple seeds each about 0.5 in. across. The pods begin to appear soon after flowering, mature during the summer and may persist for quite a while on the vines.
NOTE: Look-alikes: 1) American wisteria (Wisteria frutescens), native to the southeastern U.S. into southern Virginia, twines clockwise, stems brown to reddish brown and hairless, leaves with 9-15 leaflets, lower surface somewhat milky green, flowers in May after the leaves have expanded, flower clusters are 1.5-6 in. long, shorter than both Chinese and Japanese wisteria, flower pedicels 0.2-0.4 in long, seedpods 2-4 in. long, brown and smooth (non-hairy); 2) Chinese wisteria (Wisteria sinensis) also twines clockwise; stems are stout, gray-brown and covered with fine white hairs; leaves have 9 to 11 (7-13) leaflets; flowers are lavender to purple in racemes 6-8 in. long and open mostly all at once; flowers are 0.8-0.9 in. long on stalks (pedicels) 0.6-0.8 in. long; 3) trumpet creeper (Campsis radicans) native to central and eastern U.S.; has opposite leaves with toothed leaflets and orange-red flowers that bloom from late spring through summer and into fall.
Description and Biology
- Plant: deciduous woody, twining vine that climbs upwards in a counter-clockwise direction; stems are slender, brown and densely hairy when young, becoming hairless with age; older plants can grow to 15 in. or more in diameter.
- Leaves: alternate, compound, 8-12 in. long, with 13-17 (11-19) leaflets; leaflets egg-shaped with wavy-margins and strongly tapering tips.
- Flowers, fruits and seeds: flowering occurs in April before the leaves expand; flowers are violet to violet blue, occur in pendulous racemes 1-3 ft. in length and open sequentially from the base to the tip; flowers are 0.6-0.7 in. long on 0.6-0.8 in. long stalks (pedicels); fruits are velvety pods 4½-7½ in. long, broader towards the tip, and contain 3-6 round, flattened seeds each about ½ in. in diameter; pods begin to appear soon after flowering, mature during the summer and may persist for quite a while on the vines.
- Spreads: by seed which, in riparian areas, is transported by water; vegetatively by producing stolons (above-ground stems) that produce shoots and roots at short intervals.
- Look-alikes: Chinese wisteria; American wisteria (Wisteria frutescens) with leaves 7-12 in. long, 9-15 leaflets of uniform size, margins plane, tips acute to slightly tapering, smooth bright green above, undersides slightly milky; flowers in May after leaf expansion, flower clusters 4-6 in. long and not especially pendulous, individual flowers about ¾ in. long, pale lilac-purple with a yellow spot; fruit green and glabrous (not hairy); seeds swollen, bean to kidney-shaped; and trumpet creeper (Campsis radicans) with opposite, compound leaves, leaflet margins toothed, flowers red-orange, tubular and bloom late spring through summer.
Wisterias form dense infestations that spread from horticultural plantings [21,35]. They tend to establish and spread in forest edges, disturbed areas, and riparian zones , as well as roadsides, ditches, and rights-of-way . Wisterias grow best in full sun but are tolerant of shade [17,30].
Soil: One review states that wisterias tolerate a variety of soil and moisture levels in the southeastern United States . In Virginia, both species are listed as occurring on mesic sites . In the southeastern United States, Japanese wisteria tolerates a variety of soil and moisture regimes but prefers loamy, deep, and well-drained soil . One flora from the Southwest indicates that Chinese wisteria prefers deep, rich soil . At Fire Island National Seashore, Suffolk County, New York, an isolated Chinese wisteria shrub was found growing in moist sand along a bayshore .
Climate: Two studies offered limited climate data for locations with Chinese wisteria. At Fire Island National Seashore, Suffolk County, New York, the mean annual temperature was 50 ÂºF (10 ÂºC) and annual precipitation was approximately 45 inches (1143 mm) . In Durham and Orange Counties in North Carolina, mean daily maximum temperatures of 88.7 ÂºF (31.5 ÂºC) occurred in July, and mean daily minimum temperatures of 29.8 ÂºF (-1.2 ÂºC) occurred in January. Annual precipitation was 41 inches (1,052 mm) .
Elevation: Chinese wisteria occurs at 3,000 to 3,500 feet (900-1,000 m) in Bolivia . Elevation ranges for wisterias in North America were not found in the available literature (2009).
Flooding: Chinese wisteria is considered problematic in bottomland hardwood forests, a plant community which experiences frequent flooding .
Key Plant Community Associations
Plant community associations of nonnative species are often difficult to describe accurately
because detailed survey information is lacking, there are gaps in understanding of nonnative
species' ecological characteristics, and nonnative species may still be expanding their North
American range. Though known to have a broad distribution, as of 2009 there were very few
published descriptions of plant communities in which either wisteria species occurs.
Therefore, wisterias likely occur in plant communities other than those discussed here and listed
in the Fire Regime Table.
Chinese wisteria was found at the forest edge at Mt. Vernon, Virginia, where most
of the forest was described as mature oak-hickory (Quercus spp.-Carya spp.) .
Similarly, it occurred in the North Carolina Piedmont of Durham and Orange Counties in undisturbed
sites dominated by a temperate cold-deciduous forest mixture of oaks and hickories. In this same
region, Chinese wisteria also occurred in areas of disturbed forest and abandoned
agricultural land dominated by an overstory of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda). It was found
with a number of other nonnative species, including tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima),
mimosa (Albizia julibrissin), princesstree (Paulownia tomentosa), multiflora rose
(Rosa multiflora), Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense), and Japanese honeysuckle
(Lonicera japonica) .
In a Washington D.C. park, Chinese wisteria occurred with the overstory tree
species yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera), American beech (Fagus grandifolia),
American elm (Ulmus americana), black locust (Robinia psuedoacacia), northern red oak
(Q. rubra), and sycamore (Platanus occidentalis). It was itself being climbed by western
poison-ivy (Toxicodendron rydbergi) and Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia) .
The presence of Chinese wisteria is listed as a problem in the restoration of
bottomland hardwood forests in Mississippi , which may be part of the southern floodplain forest
type, with dominant species such as black tupelo (Nyassa sylvatica), sweetgum
(Liquidambar spp.), oaks, baldcypress (Taxodium distichum), and pines
(Pinus spp.) . Chinese wisteria also occurred in an old-growth forest
remnant stand dominated by longleaf pine (P. palustrus), a particularly rare southeastern
forest type .
The only published record of plant community associations for Japanese wisteria
noted that it was found alongside other nonnative species in a New Jersey forest preserve dominated
by oaks, American beech, and sugar maple (Acer saccharum) .
Habitat in the United States
Wisteria prefers full sun, but established vines will persist and reproduce in partial shade. Vines climb trees, shrubs and manmade structures. It is tolerant of a variety of soil and moisture regimes but prefers deep, loamy, well drained soils. Infestations are commonly found along forest edges, roadsides, ditches, and rights-of-way.
Fire Management Considerations
Potential for postfire establishment and spread: As of 2009, no studies documented the establishment or spread of either wisteria species after fire. The large seed size and consequent lack of long-distance dispersal suggest that it would be difficult for wisterias to establish by seed unless the fire occurred near a riparian area or a source population of wisteria. However, the ability for the species to spread vegetatively, combined with a preference for sunny environments [17,30], suggests that wisterias may be problematic in postfire habitats if intact populations are nearby.
Preventing postfire establishment and spread: Preventing invasive plants from establishing in weed-free burned areas is the most effective and least costly management method. This can be accomplished through early detection and eradication, careful monitoring and followup, and limiting dispersal of invasive plant propagules into burned areas. Specific recommendations include:
- incorporate cost of weed prevention and management into fire rehabilitation plans
- acquire restoration funding
- include weed prevention education in fire training
- minimize soil disturbance and vegetation removal during fire suppression and rehabilitation activities
- minimize the use of retardants containing nitrogen and phosphorus
- avoid areas dominated by high priority invasive plants when locating firelines, monitoring camps, staging areas, and helibases
- clean equipment and vehicles prior to entering burned areas
- regulate or prevent human and livestock entry into burned areas until desirable site vegetation has recovered sufficiently to resist invasion by undesirable vegetation
- monitor burned areas and areas of significant disturbance or traffic from management activity
- detect weeds early and eradicate before vegetative spread and/or seed dispersal
- eradicate small patches and contain or control large infestations within or adjacent to the burned area
- reestablish vegetation on bare ground as soon as possible
- avoid use of fertilizers in postfire rehabilitation and restoration
- use only certified weed-free seed mixes when revegetation is necessary
Use of fire as a control agent: As of 2009, there were no studies that tested the efficacy of using fire to control wisteria populations.
Fuels and Fire Regimes
Fuels: As of 2009, no studies specifically addressed fuel characteristics of wisterias. One review suggests that Chinese wisteria, along with a number of other invasive vines, has the potential to alter the fuel characteristics of invaded communities. Specifically, invasive vines could increase fuel loading and continuity, and contribute to the likelihood of crown fire by acting as a ladder fuel . The density, spatial extent, and climbing nature of wisteria populations suggest that they may alter fuel characteristics in invaded communities.
FIRE REGIMES: It is not known what type of fire regime wisterias are best adapted to. In North America, they are found in plant communities that experience both long (e.g., northern hardwood, southern floodplain forests) and short (e.g., oak-hickory-pine communities) fire-return intervals (see Fire Regime Table). In many areas where wisterias occur, historic FIRE REGIMES have been dramatically altered due to fire exclusion and massive disturbances associated with human settlement, and the potential natural vegetation may be difficult to discern.
It is unclear how the presence of wisterias may affect FIRE REGIMES in invaded communities. In ecosystems where wisterias replace plants with similar fuel characteristics, they may alter fire intensity or slightly modify an existing fire regime. If wisteria spread introduces novel fuel properties to the invaded ecosystem, fire behavior, and potentially fire regime, may be altered (see: [4,6]). This topic warrants additional study.
More info for the term: vine
Wisterias grow best in full sun but are capable of tolerating and reproducing in partial shade [30,35,42]. While Chinese wisteria has been observed on the edge of mid- and late-successional forests , occurrence within the forest interior is not well-documented. The ability of wisterias to spread vegetatively suggests that they could move into the forest interior if favorable light conditions were created through disturbances. Observations of Japanese wisteria climbing surrounding vegetation in the direction of sunlight  suggest that this vine may spread and fill in canopy gaps as they are created.
Once established in an area, wisterias may persist for a long time and eventually alter successional pathways for the area they inhabit. It has been repeatedly noted that infestations of wisteria are so dense that they strangle or shade out existing vegetation and displace native species [30,34,35]. Heavy infestations that topple large canopy trees and increase sunlight to the forest floor could favor colonizing species, including wisteria seedlings .
Because wisterias typically use other vegetation as support, it is not clear what their response would be following a disturbance that removed all potential supporting vegetation.
Although seeds are produced in favorable conditions, vegetative growth is the main method of wisteria spread [17,30]. Reviews describe vines [21,22] and stolons [21,34] rooting at nodes. One review also notes the ability of Japanese wisteria to sprout repeatedly after mechanical damage, either from the stump or from any fragment of root system left in the ground . Rates and distances of spread are not known, though individual vines have been documented at over 70 feet (21 m) long .
Seedling establishment and plant growth
Seedling establishment and plant growth: Canopy gap formation which occurs when wisteria topples a large tree favors the growth of wisteria seedlings  and existing wisteria plants . Once established in an area, wisteria patches can potentially cover several acres (see Impacts). One review states that Japanese wisteria plants can grow for more than 50 years , while another paper states that individual vines of both species can live for more than100 years .
- Pollination and breeding system
- Seed production
- Seed dispersal
- Seed banking
- Seedling establishment and plant growth
- Vegetative regeneration
There is very little information available about the reproductive and regeneration strategies of wisterias. The information available suggests that although seeds are produced in favorable conditions, vegetative growth from rooting of vines and stolons is the main method of wisteria spread [17,30]. Following injury, Japanese wisteria sprouts from the stump and from root fragments .
Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)
Fire Regime Table
Life History and Behavior
For both species, flowering occurs in spring (April-May)  and fruits are formed from July to November .
Biology and Spread
Wisteria is a long-lived perennial, surviving 50 years or more. Vegetative reproduction is the primary means of growth and spread. Slender stems (stolons, runners) grow horizontally across the ground and develop new plants (roots and shoots) at the nodes. Seeds may be produced when conditions are favorable. In riparian areas these may be carried by water downstream for great distances.
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Barcode data: Wisteria floribunda
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Wisteria floribunda
Public Records: 4
Specimens with Barcodes: 26
Species With Barcodes: 1
National NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable
NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked
Impacts and Control
Impacts: Information regarding the impacts of wisterias on invaded communities includes evidence that both species displace existing vegetation by strangling or shading out native plants and trees [17,21,30,34,35]. The death of large trees from wisteria establishment results in breaks in closed canopy forest, which favors further growth and spread of wisteria . Once established in an area, wisteria patches can potentially cover several acres; one herbicide experiment in Alabama was conducted in a Chinese wisteria patch that covered 2 to 3 acres (1 ha) . The presence of Chinese wisteria was listed as a problem in the restoration of bottomland hardwood forests in Mississippi  and threatens old-growth remnant stands of longleaf pine in the Southeast . Chinese wisteria is also listed as occurring on National Wildlife Refuges in Florida .
While both wisteria species are listed as invasive species of concern in a number of states, information as of 2009 suggests that they are less of a perceived threat than other, co-occurring invasive species [23,29,37,44]. For example, in a paper describing woody invaders of eastern forests, Japanese and Chinese wisteria are not considered as much of a threat as other woody vines, including Oriental bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus), Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica), or kudzu (Pueraria montana) . However, that status may change in the future.
Control: In all cases where invasive species are targeted for control, the potential for other invasive species to fill their void must be considered, no matter what method is employed . Information presented in the following sections may not be comprehensive and is not intended to be prescriptive in nature. It is intended to help managers understand the ecology and control of wisterias in the context of fire management. For more detailed information on control of Japanese or Chinese wisteria, consult the references cited here or local extension services.
Fire: For information on the use of prescribed fire to control this species see Fire Management Considerations.
Prevention: No information is available on this topic.
Cultural: No information is available on this topic.
Physical and/or mechanical: One review outlines strategies for cutting climbing or trailing vines of Japanese wisteria. Wisteria can sprout numerous times after cutting, so the treatment must be repeated until root stores are exhausted. If done approximately every 2 weeks from spring until autumn, cutting prevents seed production and strangulation of surrounding vegetation. This type of treatment is appropriate for small populations, as a pre-treatment for large, impenetrable sites, or in areas where herbicides are not appropriate .
It is also possible to try to control juvenile or isolated Japanese wisteria plants using a pulaski or similar digging tool to remove the entire plant, including all roots and runners. Any portions of the root system not removed are capable of sprouting. This treatment is appropriate for small initial populations or areas where herbicide use is not feasible .
Biological: No information is available on this topic.
Chemical: A range of foliar spray herbicides has been effectively used for wisteria control [22,30], though high rates and repeated applications were needed to produce near-eradication  and it was possible to damage non-target species with treatment. Cut-stump application of glyphosate or triclopyr 2 inches (5 cm) above ground level was also found to be effective for Japanese wisteria control, though foliar spray treatments may be needed afterward to compensate for the stimulation of wisteria seedlings after large vine removal . Care must be taken when other invasive species are present; in one herbicide treatment, the reduction in Chinese wisteria cover released the invasive Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense), which was not impacted by the herbicides .
Prevention and Control
Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems
Importance to Livestock and Wildlife
As of 2009, there was very little information on the importance of wisteria to wildlife or livestock.
Palatability and/or nutritional value: A number of reviews list wisteria flowers, leaves, fruits, and seeds as poisonous , and one further indicates that seed ingestion causes symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, stomach pains, and diarrhea . Japanese wisteria was listed as a minor winter plant food for bobwhite quail in Alabama , and hummingbirds have been observed feeding on the nectar of Chinese wisteria .
Cover value: No information is available on this topic.
Other uses and values
Ecological Threat in the United States
The hard woody vines of Japanese wisteria twine tightly around host tree trunks and branches and cut through the host tree bark, eventually girdling and killing it. On the ground, new vines germinating from seed or sprouting from rootstocks form dense thickets that smother and shade out native vegetation and impede natural plant community development. As girdled trees die, canopy gaps are created which increase the amount of sunlight reaching the forest floor. While this may temporarily favor some native species, it also stimulates vigorous growth and spread of wisteria.
Ecological Threat in the United States
Wisteria floribunda (common name Japanese wisteria) is a species of flowering plant in the pea family Fabaceae, native to Japan. Growing to 9 m (30 ft), it is a woody, deciduous twining climber. It was brought from Japan to the United States in 1830's. Since then, it has become one of the most highly romanticized flowering garden plants. It is also a common subject for bonsai, along with Wisteria sinensis (Chinese wisteria).
The flowering habit of Japanese wisteria is perhaps the most spectacular of the Wisteria family. It sports the longest flower racemes of any wisteria; they can reach nearly half a meter in length. These racemes burst into great trails of clustered white, pink, violet, or blue flowers in early- to mid-spring. The flowers carry a distinctive fragrance similar to that of grapes. The early flowering time of Japanese wisteria can cause problems in temperate climates, where early frosts can destroy the coming years' flowers. It will also flower only after passing from juvenile to adult stage, a transition that may take many frustrating years just like its cousin Chinese wisteria.
Japanese wisteria can grow over 30m long over many supports via powerful clockwise-twining stems. The foliage consists of shiny, dark-green, pinnately compound leaves 10–30 cm in length. The leaves bear 9-13 oblong leaflets that are each 2–6 cm long. It also bears numerous poisonous, brown, velvety, bean-like seed pods 5–10 cm long that mature in summer and persist until winter. Japanese wisteria prefers moist soils and full sun in USDA plant hardiness zones 5-9. The plant often lives over fifty years.
W. floribunda cultivars
- 'Shiro Noda', 'Snow Showers' or 'Longissima Alba' agm - long white flower clusters
- 'Kuchibeni' or 'Carnea' - pink flowers
- 'Honbeni' or 'Rosea'agm - pale rose flowers tipped purple, 18 inches long
- 'Issai Perfect' - light lavender flowers
- 'Jako' or 'Ivory Tower'
- 'Lawrence' - blue flowers, hardy cultivar
- 'Macrobotrys' or 'Longissima' - reddish-violet flower clusters one meter or longer
- 'Macrobotrys Cascade' - white and pinkish-purple flowers, vigorous grower
- 'Multijuga'agm - violet flowers with darker markings
- 'Nana Richins Purple' - purple flowers
- 'Nishiki' - variegated foliage
- 'Plena' or 'Violaceae Plena' - double blue flowers in dense clusters
- 'Praecox' or 'Domino' - purple flowers
- 'Purpurea' - unknown - May be Wisteria sinensis consequa which is sometimes labeled purpurea
- 'Royal Purple' - purple flowers
- 'Rubra'- unknown - may be Honbeni - sometimes labeled as Rubrum - deep pink to red flowers
- 'Texas Purple' - may be a sinensis or a hybrid, short racemes, purple flowers, produced while the plant is still young
- 'Violacea Plena' - double violet flowers, rosette-shaped
- 'White with Blue Eye' - also known as Sekines Blue - very fragrant
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Wisteria floribunda.|
- Japanese Wisteria at MSU
- Japanese Wisteria as a pest
- University of Ohio fact sheet for Wisteria family
- "Wisteria floribunda, W. sinensis". United States Forest Service. Retrieved December 12, 2014.
- "Japanese Wisteria". National Park Service. Retrieved December 12, 2014.
- Growth Conditions
- "RHS Plant Selector - Wisteria floribunda 'Alba'". Retrieved 9 June 2013.
- "RHS Plant Selector - Wisteria floribunda 'Rosea'". Retrieved 9 June 2013.
- "RHS Plant Selector - Wisteria floribunda 'Multijuga'". Retrieved 9 June 2013.
Names and Taxonomy
review summarizes information on the following wisteria species:
Wisteria floribunda (Willd.) DC., Japanese wisteria [13,28]
Wisteria sinensis (Sims) DC., Chinese wisteria [1,13,28,47]
In this review, species are referred to by their common names, and "wisteria" refers to
Hybrids: In the southeastern United States, the majority of wisteria plants growing outside of cultivation were hybrids of Chinese and Japanese wisteria [35,36].
Rehsonia floribunda (Willd.) Stritch 
for Wisteria sinensis (Sims) DC.:
Rehsonia sinensis (Sims) Stritch 
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