Molecular Biology and Genetics
Barcode data: Vicia orobus
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Vicia orobus
Public Records: 5
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
Vicia orobus is a species of leguminous plant in the genus Vicia, known as wood bitter-vetch. It is found in Atlantic areas of Europe, especially in the rocky edges of seasonally-grazed fields. It grows up to 60 cm (24 in) tall, and has no tendrils at the ends of its pinnate leaves. Its flowers are white with purple veins, and are borne in groups of 6 or more.
Vicia orobus has an Atlantic distribution, occurring from northern Spain to Norway, at altitudes of 0–2,380 metres (0–7,810 ft). In Great Britain, V. orobus has a westerly distribution, and is extinct in South East England. Much of the global population is found in the British Isles, where it is largely restricted to alttiudes of 200–300 metres (660–980 ft), except in the far north (north of Lochinver), where it can be found down to sea level. Its stronghold is in central and north-western Wales.
In Ireland, V. orobus is declining in numbers, and has been found recently at fewer than a dozen sites, most of which hold very small populations. It is therefore accorded legal protection in the Republic of Ireland, under the Flora (Protection) Order 1999.
In continental Europe, V. orobus is replaced to the east by V. cassubica, with the division between the two species running through central France. It is present as a native species in Switzerland, where it is the only truly Atlantic species.
Vicia orobus is a perennial plant, growing up to 60 centimetres (24 in) tall. Its leaves are pinnate, with 6–15 pairs of leaflets on each leaf. The flowers are borne in groups of 6–20. Each individual flower is 12–15 mm (0.5–0.6 in) long, and is white with purple veins. The fruit is a 4–5-seeded pod around 20–30 mm (0.8–1.2 in) long.
V. orobus can be distinguished from other species of Vicia occurring in the British Isles by a number of characters. It is one of three species to lack tendrils (the others being V. lathyroides and V. faba), with the leaves terminating instead in a short point. It differs from the other two species without tendrils in being perennial, having more than 6 flowers in each inflorescence, having peduncles more than 3 cm (1.2 in) long, and having more than 5 pairs of leaflets in each pinnate leaf. The lack of tendrils is thought to represent a primitive state within the genus Vicia.
Vicia orobus is found in a variety of sites, including the edges of woods, on heaths, in meadows or in rocky places over limestone. In Great Britain, it is frequently found at the edges of fields where sheep are grazed in winter, but a hay crop is grown in summer. It is threatened by both overgrazing and undergrazing, as well as other activities, such as grassland improvement and land reclamation. V. orobus flowers from May to July and is pollinated by bees.
Many species are associated with V. orobus in Great Britain, including Alchemilla glabra, Carex pallescens, Genista anglica, Pseudorchis albida, Rhinanthus minor, Stachys officinalis and Viola lutea. At some sites in Ireland, V. orobus is associated with species such as Dryas octopetala, Sesleria albicans and Geranium sanguineum, which are characteristic of the flora of the Burren, although V. orobus does not occur in the Burren, or in floristically similar regions nearby.
Vicia orobus was first described by Augustin Pyramus de Candolle in the 1815 work Flore Française. It is classified in the section Vicia sect. Cassubicae, alongside species such as V. cassubica, V. megalotropis and its likely sister species, V. sparsiflora.
- C. Romero Zarco (1999). "Vicia L.". In S. Castroviejo et al.. Leguminosae. Flora Iberica (in Spanish) 7/1. Madrid, Spain: CSIC. pp. 360–417. ISBN 978-84-00-07821-8.
- Gregor Kozlowski, Sandra Bürcher, Matthieu Fleury & Fanny Huber (2009). "The Atlantic elements in the Swiss flora: distribution, diversity, and conservation status" (PDF). Biodiversity and Conservation 18 (3): 649–662. doi:10.1007/s10531-008-9531-0.
- Oliver Whaley, Steve Davis, Andrew Darragh & David Walker. "Vicia orobus (wood bitter-vetch)". Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved July 15, 2012.
- Cilian Roden (1995). "Wood bitter vetch Vicia orobus DC. on lake islands and limestone heath in Cos Galway (H16, H17) and Mayo (H26)". The Irish Naturalists' Journal 25 (4): 128–134. JSTOR 25535942.
- K. J. Walker (2007). "The last thirty five years: recent changes in the flora of the British Isles" (PDF). Watsonia 26: 291–302.
- "Wood bitter-vetch action plan" (PDF). Our Partnership with Nature: A Local Biodiversity Action Plan for Wales. Powys County Council. September 2002.
- "Checklist of protected & rare species in Ireland". National Parks & Wildlife Service. February 29, 2012. Retrieved July 15, 2012.
- Clive A. Stace (2010). "Vicia L. – vetches". New Flora of the British Isles (3rd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 157–160. ISBN 978-0-521-70772-5.
- Vella Jaaska (2005). "Isozyme variation and phylogenetic relationships in Vicia subgenus Cracca (Fabaceae)". Annals of Botany 96 (6): 1085–1096. doi:10.1093/aob/mci260.