Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Native of S. America, Planted in gardens"
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Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Shrub Distribution notes: Exotic
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Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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"Maharashtra: Kolhapur, Pune"
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"
Global Distribution

Pantropical

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: All Districts

"
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Distribution: Pantropical weed of S. American origin; commonly planted in gardens in West Pakistan.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

Perennial, Shrubs, Woody throughout, Stems woody below, or from woody crown or caudex, Taproot present, Stems erect or ascending, Stems less than 1 m tall, Stems 1-2 m tall, Stems greater than 2 m tall, Stems solid, Stems or young twigs glabrous or sparsely glabrate, Stems or young twigs sparsely to dense ly hairy, Stem hairs hispid to villous, Leaves alternate, Leaves petiolate, Stipules inconspicuous, absent, or caducous, Stipules conspicuous, Stipules setiform, subulate or acicular, Stipules persistent, Stipules free, Leaves compound, Leaves even pinnate, Leaf or leaflet margins entire, Leaflets opposite, Leaflets 10-many, Leaves glabrous or nearly so, Inflorescences racemes, Inflorescences spikes or spike-like, Inflorescence axillary, Bracts conspicuously present, Bracts very small, absent or caducous, Flowers actinomorphic or somewhat irregular, Calyx 5-lobed, Calyx glabrous, Petals separate, Petals orange or yellow, Fertile stamens 6-8, Stamens heteromorphic, graded in size, Stamens completely free, separate, Filaments glabrous, Anthers opening by basal or terminal pores or slits, Style terete, Fruit a legume, Fruit stipitate, Fruit unilocular, Fruit freely dehiscent, Fruit elongate, straight, Fruit oblong or ellipsoidal, Fruits quadrangulate, Fruits winged, carinate, o r samaroid, Fruit exserted from calyx, Fruit internally septate between the seeds, Fruit compressed between seeds, Fruit glabrous or glabrate, Fruit 11-many seeded, Seed with elliptical line or depression, pleurogram, Seeds ovoid to rounded in outline, Seed surface smooth, Seeds olive, brown, or black.
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Dr. David Bogler

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Description

A shrub 1-5 m tall. Stem marked with leaf scars and persistent stipules. Stipules 6-9 mm long, persistent, auriculate. Petiole 1.5-2.5 cm long, rachis 30-60 cm long, leaflets 8-24 pairs, 3-15 cm long, 2-7 cm wide, oblong-elliptic or oblong¬-obovate, top rounded or slightly notched. Raceme 15-70 cm long; bracts 2-3 cm long, enclosing the bud, caducous. Flowers yellow. Sepals 1.5-2 cm long, 4-6 mm wide. Petals 1.5-2 cm long, 1 cm wide. Stamens 9 or 10, variable in size, all func¬tional. Pod straight with 2 longitudinal wings, 40-60 seeded.
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Erect shrubs to 4 m tall. Leaves 28-60 cm long; leaflets 6-12 pairs, 4-13 x 2-6 cm, oblong to obovate-oblong, base rounded to subcordate, apex rounded; stipules 1-2 cm long, deltoid, base auriculate, apex acute to acuminate. Inflorescence terminal or axillary, many-flowered spicate raceme, 40-60 cm long. Flowers yellow; pedicels 4-8 mm long; bracts petaloid, yellow, 1-2 cm long, ovate-elliptic, subacute. Sepals 1-1.5 cm long, yellow. Petals yellow, 1.5-2 cm long, obovate. Stamens 10, anthers 2 large, 5 medium-sized, and 3 small. Pods 9-14 x 1.5-2 cm, linear, 4-winged, septate, dehiscent. Seeds many, 5-7 x 4-5 mm, rhomboid, compressed, dark brown."
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Diagnostic

Habit: Shrub
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Ecology

Habitat

General Habitat

Along riversides and margins of ponds
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: September-January
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Flower/Fruit

Fl. Per.: October-December.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Chemistry

Leaf contains purgative anthraquinone, and shows some antimicrobial activity. Stem contains chrysophanol, emodin, rhein and aloe emodin. Leaf and fruit contain purgative anthracene derivatives of aloe emodin and rhein.

  • Grenand, P., Moretti, C. and H. Jacquemin. 1987. Pharmacopées Traditionnelles en Guyane: Créoles, Palikur, Wayapi. 569 pp. Paris: Editions de l'ORSTOM.
  • Lachman-White, D.A., Adams, C.D. and U.O. Trotz. 1987. A Guide to the Medicinal Plants of Coastal Guyana. 350 pp. London: Commonwealth Science Council.
  • Luu, C. 1975. Contribution à l'étude des plantes médicinales de la Guyane Francaise. Journal d'Agriculture Tropicale et de Botanique Appliqué 22(4-6): 121-141.
  • Plotkin, M.J. 1986. Ethnobotany and Conservation of the Tropical Forest with Special Reference to the Indians of Southern Suriname. 402 pp. Ph.D. Dissertation. Tufts University.
  • Verpoorte, R., Tjin A Tsoi, A., Van Doorne, H. and A. Baerheim-Svendsen. 1982. Medicinal plants of Suriname. I. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 5(2): 221-226.
  • Ostendorf, F.W. 1962. Nuttige Planten en Sierplanten in Suriname. 324 pp. Landbouwproefstation in Suriname, Bulletin No. 79.
  • Von Reis, S. and F.J. Lipp. 1982. New Plant Sources for Drugs and Foods from the New York Botanical Garden Herbarium. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
  • Devez, G. 1932. Les Plantes Utiles et les Bois Industriels de la Guyane. 90 pp. Paris: Societe d'Editions Geographiques, Maritimes et Coloniales.
  • Heyde, H. 1987. Surinaamse Medicijnplanten. Ed. 2. 112 pp. Paramaribo, Surinam: Westfort. (Followed by: Heyde, H. 1990. Medecijn Planten in Suriname (Den Dresi Wiwiri foe Sranan). 157 pp. Paramaribo, Surinam: Stichting Gezondheidsplanten Informatie).
  • May, A.F. 1982. Surinaams Kruidenboek (Sranan Oso Dresi). 80 pp. Paramaribo, Surinam: Vaco; and Zutphen, The Netherlands: De Walburg Pers.
  • Amshoff, G.J.H. 1939. Papilionaceae, pp. 1-257. In: Pulle, A., ed., Flora of Suriname. Vol. 2, Part 2. Amsterdam: J.H. De Bussy.
  • Austin, D.F. and G.R. Bourne. 1992. Notes on Guyana's medical ethnobotany. Economic Botany 46(3): 293-298.
  • van Andel, T. R. 2000. Non-timber Forest Products of the North-West District of Guyana. Part I: 326 pp., Part II: A Field Guide, 358 pp. Tropenbos-Guyana Series 8B. Georgetown, Guyana: Tropenbos-Guyana Programme.

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Barcode data: Cassia alata

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Cassia alata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Senna alata

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Senna alata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 5
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G4 - Apparently Secure

Reasons: En Paraguay se ha encontrado en la parte central del país, es decir, en la parte más densa y antiguamente habitada. En América: desde las Antillas hasta la Argentina.

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Root: Infusion for tympanitis. Cooked in water for uterus problems and filaria worm expulsion. In NW Guyana, used for diarrhea, bete rouge, as laxative, and for sores and skin fungi. Flower: Used as laxative and for worms in NW Guyana. Leaf, Flower and Fruit: Mixed in an infusion for stomach problems. Leaf: Infusion for a laxative tea and to cleanse the blood. In a tincture for skin blemishes and ringworm. Finely ground and used alone or mixed with oil to treat various skin conditions, such as tetter, scurf, scaling skin, ulcers, eczema, ringworm, dermatitis; decoction as an externally applied febrifuge; decocted with or without Tripogandra serrulata and Persea americana for biliousness and hypertension. Decocted with egg-white and "casareep" for pneumonia, colds and fever. Flower: Decoction for a vermifuge; decoction with Zingiber officinale for grippe and as an abortifacient; decocted with coconut milk for a laxative; infusion for remedying spleen conditions. Seed: Cooked and used as a laxative anthelmintic remedy for intestinal worms.

  • Grenand, P., Moretti, C. and H. Jacquemin. 1987. Pharmacopées Traditionnelles en Guyane: Créoles, Palikur, Wayapi. 569 pp. Paris: Editions de l'ORSTOM.
  • Lachman-White, D.A., Adams, C.D. and U.O. Trotz. 1987. A Guide to the Medicinal Plants of Coastal Guyana. 350 pp. London: Commonwealth Science Council.
  • Luu, C. 1975. Contribution à l'étude des plantes médicinales de la Guyane Francaise. Journal d'Agriculture Tropicale et de Botanique Appliqué 22(4-6): 121-141.
  • Plotkin, M.J. 1986. Ethnobotany and Conservation of the Tropical Forest with Special Reference to the Indians of Southern Suriname. 402 pp. Ph.D. Dissertation. Tufts University.
  • Verpoorte, R., Tjin A Tsoi, A., Van Doorne, H. and A. Baerheim-Svendsen. 1982. Medicinal plants of Suriname. I. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 5(2): 221-226.
  • Ostendorf, F.W. 1962. Nuttige Planten en Sierplanten in Suriname. 324 pp. Landbouwproefstation in Suriname, Bulletin No. 79.
  • Von Reis, S. and F.J. Lipp. 1982. New Plant Sources for Drugs and Foods from the New York Botanical Garden Herbarium. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
  • Devez, G. 1932. Les Plantes Utiles et les Bois Industriels de la Guyane. 90 pp. Paris: Societe d'Editions Geographiques, Maritimes et Coloniales.
  • Heyde, H. 1987. Surinaamse Medicijnplanten. Ed. 2. 112 pp. Paramaribo, Surinam: Westfort. (Followed by: Heyde, H. 1990. Medecijn Planten in Suriname (Den Dresi Wiwiri foe Sranan). 157 pp. Paramaribo, Surinam: Stichting Gezondheidsplanten Informatie).
  • May, A.F. 1982. Surinaams Kruidenboek (Sranan Oso Dresi). 80 pp. Paramaribo, Surinam: Vaco; and Zutphen, The Netherlands: De Walburg Pers.
  • Amshoff, G.J.H. 1939. Papilionaceae, pp. 1-257. In: Pulle, A., ed., Flora of Suriname. Vol. 2, Part 2. Amsterdam: J.H. De Bussy.
  • Austin, D.F. and G.R. Bourne. 1992. Notes on Guyana's medical ethnobotany. Economic Botany 46(3): 293-298.
  • van Andel, T. R. 2000. Non-timber Forest Products of the North-West District of Guyana. Part I: 326 pp., Part II: A Field Guide, 358 pp. Tropenbos-Guyana Series 8B. Georgetown, Guyana: Tropenbos-Guyana Programme.

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Uses

Medicinal
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Wikipedia

Senna alata

Senna alata, the candle bush, is an important medicinal tree, as well as an ornamental flowering plants in the subfamily Caesalpinioideae. It also known as a candelabra bush, empress candle plant, ringworm tree, or candletree. A remarkable species of Senna, it was sometimes separated in its own genus, Herpetica.

S. alata is native to Mexico, and can be found in diverse habitats. In the tropics, it grows up to an altitude of 1,200 m. It is an invasive species in Austronesia. In Sri Lanka, it is used as an ingredient in Sinhala traditional medicine.

The shrub stands 3–4 m tall, with leaves 50–80 cm long. The inflorescence looks like a yellow candle. The fruit, shaped like a straight pod, is up to 25 cm long. Its seed are distributed by water or animals. The leaves close in the dark.

Cultivation[edit]

The seed pods are nearly straight, dark brown or nearly black, about 15 cm long, and 15 mm wide. On both sides of the pods is a wing that runs the length of the pod. Pods contains 50 to 60 flattened, triangular seeds.

This species is easy to grow from seed. They may either be sown directly or started in a nursery.

Medicinal uses[edit]

S. alata is often called the ringworm bush because of its very effective fungicidal properties, for treating ringworm and other fungal infections of the skin. The leaves are ground in a mortar to obtain a kind of "green cotton wool". This is mixed with the same amount of vegetable oil and rubbed on the affected area two or three times a day. A fresh preparation is made every day.[1] Its active ingredients include the yellow chrysophanic acid.

Its laxative effect, due to its anthraquinone content, is also well proven.

Images[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ HIRT, Dr Hans Martin, & Bindanda M'Pia (2008) Natural Medicine in the Tropics I: Foundation text. anamed, Winnenden, Germany

Sources[edit]

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Notes

Comments

Cultivated as an ornamental plant. It is reputed to have medicinal properties against skin spots, scabies and ringworms. The active principle is chrysophanic acid. The roasted leaves are taken as laxative.
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Synonyms

  • Grenand, P., Moretti, C. and H. Jacquemin. 1987. Pharmacopées Traditionnelles en Guyane: Créoles, Palikur, Wayapi. 569 pp. Paris: Editions de l'ORSTOM.
  • Lachman-White, D.A., Adams, C.D. and U.O. Trotz. 1987. A Guide to the Medicinal Plants of Coastal Guyana. 350 pp. London: Commonwealth Science Council.
  • Luu, C. 1975. Contribution à l'étude des plantes médicinales de la Guyane Francaise. Journal d'Agriculture Tropicale et de Botanique Appliqué 22(4-6): 121-141.
  • Plotkin, M.J. 1986. Ethnobotany and Conservation of the Tropical Forest with Special Reference to the Indians of Southern Suriname. 402 pp. Ph.D. Dissertation. Tufts University.
  • Verpoorte, R., Tjin A Tsoi, A., Van Doorne, H. and A. Baerheim-Svendsen. 1982. Medicinal plants of Suriname. I. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 5(2): 221-226.
  • Ostendorf, F.W. 1962. Nuttige Planten en Sierplanten in Suriname. 324 pp. Landbouwproefstation in Suriname, Bulletin No. 79.
  • Von Reis, S. and F.J. Lipp. 1982. New Plant Sources for Drugs and Foods from the New York Botanical Garden Herbarium. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
  • Devez, G. 1932. Les Plantes Utiles et les Bois Industriels de la Guyane. 90 pp. Paris: Societe d'Editions Geographiques, Maritimes et Coloniales.
  • Heyde, H. 1987. Surinaamse Medicijnplanten. Ed. 2. 112 pp. Paramaribo, Surinam: Westfort. (Followed by: Heyde, H. 1990. Medecijn Planten in Suriname (Den Dresi Wiwiri foe Sranan). 157 pp. Paramaribo, Surinam: Stichting Gezondheidsplanten Informatie).
  • May, A.F. 1982. Surinaams Kruidenboek (Sranan Oso Dresi). 80 pp. Paramaribo, Surinam: Vaco; and Zutphen, The Netherlands: De Walburg Pers.
  • Amshoff, G.J.H. 1939. Papilionaceae, pp. 1-257. In: Pulle, A., ed., Flora of Suriname. Vol. 2, Part 2. Amsterdam: J.H. De Bussy.
  • Austin, D.F. and G.R. Bourne. 1992. Notes on Guyana's medical ethnobotany. Economic Botany 46(3): 293-298.
  • van Andel, T. R. 2000. Non-timber Forest Products of the North-West District of Guyana. Part I: 326 pp., Part II: A Field Guide, 358 pp. Tropenbos-Guyana Series 8B. Georgetown, Guyana: Tropenbos-Guyana Programme.

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