Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Native of S. America, Planted in gardens"
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Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Shrub Distribution notes: Exotic
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Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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"Maharashtra: Kolhapur, Pune"
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"
Global Distribution

Pantropical

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: All Districts

"
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Distribution: Pantropical weed of S. American origin; commonly planted in gardens in West Pakistan.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

Perennial, Shrubs, Woody throughout, Stems woody below, or from woody crown or caudex, Taproot present, Stems erect or ascending, Stems less than 1 m tall, Stems 1-2 m tall, Stems greater than 2 m tall, Stems solid, Stems or young twigs glabrous or sparsely glabrate, Stems or young twigs sparsely to dense ly hairy, Stem hairs hispid to villous, Leaves alternate, Leaves petiolate, Stipules inconspicuous, absent, or caducous, Stipules conspicuous, Stipules setiform, subulate or acicular, Stipules persistent, Stipules free, Leaves compound, Leaves even pinnate, Leaf or leaflet margins entire, Leaflets opposite, Leaflets 10-many, Leaves glabrous or nearly so, Inflorescences racemes, Inflorescences spikes or spike-like, Inflorescence axillary, Bracts conspicuously present, Bracts very small, absent or caducous, Flowers actinomorphic or somewhat irregular, Calyx 5-lobed, Calyx glabrous, Petals separate, Petals orange or yellow, Fertile stamens 6-8, Stamens heteromorphic, graded in size, Stamens completely free, separate, Filaments glabrous, Anthers opening by basal or terminal pores or slits, Style terete, Fruit a legume, Fruit stipitate, Fruit unilocular, Fruit freely dehiscent, Fruit elongate, straight, Fruit oblong or ellipsoidal, Fruits quadrangulate, Fruits winged, carinate, o r samaroid, Fruit exserted from calyx, Fruit internally septate between the seeds, Fruit compressed between seeds, Fruit glabrous or glabrate, Fruit 11-many seeded, Seed with elliptical line or depression, pleurogram, Seeds ovoid to rounded in outline, Seed surface smooth, Seeds olive, brown, or black.
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Dr. David Bogler

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Description

A shrub 1-5 m tall. Stem marked with leaf scars and persistent stipules. Stipules 6-9 mm long, persistent, auriculate. Petiole 1.5-2.5 cm long, rachis 30-60 cm long, leaflets 8-24 pairs, 3-15 cm long, 2-7 cm wide, oblong-elliptic or oblong¬-obovate, top rounded or slightly notched. Raceme 15-70 cm long; bracts 2-3 cm long, enclosing the bud, caducous. Flowers yellow. Sepals 1.5-2 cm long, 4-6 mm wide. Petals 1.5-2 cm long, 1 cm wide. Stamens 9 or 10, variable in size, all func¬tional. Pod straight with 2 longitudinal wings, 40-60 seeded.
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Erect shrubs to 4 m tall. Leaves 28-60 cm long; leaflets 6-12 pairs, 4-13 x 2-6 cm, oblong to obovate-oblong, base rounded to subcordate, apex rounded; stipules 1-2 cm long, deltoid, base auriculate, apex acute to acuminate. Inflorescence terminal or axillary, many-flowered spicate raceme, 40-60 cm long. Flowers yellow; pedicels 4-8 mm long; bracts petaloid, yellow, 1-2 cm long, ovate-elliptic, subacute. Sepals 1-1.5 cm long, yellow. Petals yellow, 1.5-2 cm long, obovate. Stamens 10, anthers 2 large, 5 medium-sized, and 3 small. Pods 9-14 x 1.5-2 cm, linear, 4-winged, septate, dehiscent. Seeds many, 5-7 x 4-5 mm, rhomboid, compressed, dark brown."
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Diagnostic

Habit: Shrub
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Ecology

Habitat

General Habitat

Along riversides and margins of ponds
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: September-January
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Flower/Fruit

Fl. Per.: October-December.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Cassia alata

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Cassia alata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Senna alata

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Senna alata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 5
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G4 - Apparently Secure

Reasons: En Paraguay se ha encontrado en la parte central del país, es decir, en la parte más densa y antiguamente habitada. En América: desde las Antillas hasta la Argentina.

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

Medicinal
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Wikipedia

Senna alata

Senna alata, the Candle Bush, is an important medicinal tree as well as an ornamental flowering plants in the subfamily Caesalpinioideae. It also known as a Candelabra Bush, Empress Candle Plant, Ringworm Tree or "candletree". A remarkable species of Senna, it was sometimes separated in its own genus, Herpetica

Senna alata is native to Mexico, and can be found in diverse habitats. In the tropics it grows up to an altitude of 1,200 meters. It is an invasive species in Austronesia. In Sri Lanka this is use an ingredient of Sinhala traditional medicine.

The shrub stands 3–4 m tall, with leaves 50–80 cm long. The inflorescence looks like a yellow candle. The fruit shaped like a straight pod is up to 25 cm long. Its seed are distributed by water or animals. The leaves close in the dark.

Cultivation[edit]

The seed pods are nearly straight, dark brown or nearly black, about 15 cm long and 15 mm wide. On both sides of the pods there is a wing that runs the length of the pod. Pods contains 50 to 60 flattened, triangular seeds.

Cassia alata is easy to grow from seed. The seeds may either be sown directly or started in a nursery.

Medicinal uses[edit]

Cassia alata or Senna alata is often called the Ringworm Bush because of its very effective fungicidal properties, for treating ringworm and other fungal infections of the skin. The leaves are ground in a mortar to obtain a kind of "green cotton wool". This is mixed with the same amount of vegetable oil then rubbed on the affected area 2-3 times a day. A fresh preparation is made every day.[1] Its active ingredients include the yellow chrysophanic acid.

Its laxative effect, due to its anthraquinone content, is also well proven.

Images[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ HIRT, Dr Hans Martin, & Bindanda M'Pia (2008) Natural Medicine in the Tropics I: Foundation text. anamed, Winnenden, Germany

Sources[edit]

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Notes

Comments

Cultivated as an ornamental plant. It is reputed to have medicinal properties against skin spots, scabies and ringworms. The active principle is chrysophanic acid. The roasted leaves are taken as laxative.
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