Overview

Comprehensive Description

Derivation of specific name

pulcherrima: most beautiful
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Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Cultivated, Native of Tropical America"
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Distribution

Worldwide distribution

Native to tropical and subtropical America.
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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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"Maharashtra: Kolhapur Karnataka: Hassan, Mysore Kerala: All districts Tamil Nadu: All districts"
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Distribution: Native country uncertain, probably South America; introduced in Tropics, cultivated extensively in W. Pakistan.
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Widely cultivated in tropics, probably of South American origln.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Shrub, nearly 2 m in height, branches sometimes slightly prickly. Leaves bipinnate, 10-45 cm long, pinnae 4-12 pairs, opposite, c. 7.5 cm long. Leaflets 1.2-1.3 cm long, 3-7 mm broad. Flowers in erect terminal raceme, variously orange yellow and red coloured, often claw red, centre of limb crimson, red or golden red. Filaments very long, bright red. Pod 5-7.5 cm long c. 1.7 cm broad, straight.
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Elevation Range

300-1000 m
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

Habit: Shrub
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flower/Fruit

Fl. Per.: April-September.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Caesalpinia pulcherrima

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Caesalpinia pulcherrima

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 9
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Root: Bitter, toxic, astringent; for diarrhoea. Leaf and Flower: Infusion is diuretic. Leaf, Flower and Seed: For stomach, urinany bladder and kidney problems. Leaf and Seed: Infusion is drunk by the Djuka to induce quick, uncomplicated abortion in early pregnancy. Leaf: Infusion is drunk for kidney stones, and to accelerate childbirth. For a febrifuge, tonic, excitant, emmenagogue, and possibly an abortive at a certain dosage. Leaves of the yellow-flowered form, f. flava (Bailey & Rehder) DeFilipps, Ornamental Garden Plants of the Guianas 85 (1992), are used in Surinam for stomachache. Flower: Febrifuge; infusion drunk as a tea for gall bladder problems in Surinam. Fresh flowers are sudorific. Those of the red-flowered form (f. pulcherrima) are used in Surinam for urinary tract problems. Seed: Pectoral.

  • Amshoff, G.J.H. 1939. Papilionaceae, pp. 1-257. In: Pulle, A., ed., Flora of Suriname. Vol. 2, Part 2. Amsterdam: J.H. De Bussy.
  • Counter, S.A. and D.L. Evans. 1981. I Sought My Brother: An Afro-American Reunion. 276 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, England: MIT Press.
  • Grenand, P., Moretti, C. and H. Jacquemin. 1987. Pharmacopées Traditionnelles en Guyane: Créoles, Palikur, Wayapi. 569 pp. Paris: Editions de l'ORSTOM.
  • Heckel, E. 1897. Les Plantes Médicinales et Toxiques de la Guyane Francaise. 93 pp. Macon, France: Protat Freres.
  • Heyde, H. 1987. Surinaamse Medicijnplanten. Ed. 2. 112 pp. Paramaribo, Surinam: Westfort. (Followed by: Heyde, H. 1990. Medecijn Planten in Suriname (Den Dresi Wiwiri foe Sranan). 157 pp. Paramaribo, Surinam: Stichting Gezondheidsplanten Informatie).
  • May, A.F. 1982. Surinaams Kruidenboek (Sranan Oso Dresi). 80 pp. Paramaribo, Surinam: Vaco; and Zutphen, The Netherlands: De Walburg Pers.

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Wikipedia

Caesalpinia pulcherrima

Caesalpinia pulcherrima is a species of flowering plant in the pea family, Fabaceae, that is native to the tropics and subtropics of the Americas. It could be native to the West Indies,[2] but its exact origin is unknown due to widespread cultivation.[1] Common names for this species include Poinciana, Peacock Flower, Red Bird of Paradise, Mexican Bird of Paradise, Dwarf Poinciana, Pride of Barbados, and flamboyant-de-jardin.

Description[edit]

Buds of Peacock Flower at Kerala

It is a shrub growing to 3 m tall. The leaves are bipinnate, 20–40 cm long,bearing 3-10 pairs of pinnae,each with 6-10 pairs of leaflets 15–25 mm long and 10–15 mm broad. The flowers are borne in racemes up to 20 cm long, each flower with five yellow, orange or red petals. The fruit is a pod 6–12 cm long.

Symbolism[edit]

Red Bird of Paradise is the national flower of the Caribbean island of Barbados, and is depicted on the Queen's personal Barbadian flag.

Uses[edit]

Food[edit]

All seeds of Caesalpinia are poisonous. However the seeds of some species are edible before the seed reach maturity (e.g. immature seeds of C. pulcherrima) or with treatment (C. bonduc toxicity is reduced after roasting).[3]

Medicinal[edit]

Maroon medicine men in Suriname have long known some of the medicinal uses for Caesalpinia pulcherrima, which is known as ayoowiri. Four grams from the root is also said to induce abortion in the first trimester of pregnancy.[4][5][medical citation needed]

Ornamental[edit]

C. pulcherrima is the most widely cultivated species in the genus Caesalpinia. It is a striking ornamental plant, widely grown in domestic and public gardens and has a beautiful inflorescence in yellow, red and orange. Its small size and the fact that it tolerates pruning well allows it to be planted in groups to form a hedgerow; it can be also used to attract hummingbirds.[6]

Names[edit]

Common names for this species in other languages include

  • Marathi: Sankasur
  • Oriya: Krushnachuda (କୃଷ୍ନଚୁଡା)/ Godibaana (ଗୋଡିବାଣ)
  • Sanskrit: Sidhakya
  • Tamil: Mayirkonrai; Nazhal
  • Telugu: Ratnagandhi
  • Thai: หางนกยูงไทย

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Taxon: Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L.) Sw.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2004-03-26. Retrieved 2010-12-03. 
  2. ^ "Tropical Flower Guide". Retrieved 30 November 2012. 
  3. ^ [books.google.com.bn/books?id=-J-YxItyrHEC&pg=PA97&lpg=PA97&dq=Caesalpinia+pulcherrima+edible&source=bl&ots=jqRMjam2OX&sig=w6ls5yU90D5KuCmvdIaWsTIlIuQ&hl=en&sa=X&ei=qNP7UbXaJMTFkwWUgYGIAQ&ved=0CEUQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=Caesalpinia pulcherrima edible&f=false] Handbook of Poisonous and Injurious Plants By Lewis Nelson, Richard D. Shih, Michael J. Balick
  4. ^ Counter, S. Allen (2006-07-24). "Amazon mystery: A medicine man understood the secrets of this plant long before we did. How?". The Boston Globe. 
  5. ^ Schiebinger, Londa L. (2004). Plants and empire: colonial bioprospecting in the Atlantic world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-674-01487-9. 
  6. ^ Frisch, J.D. & Frisch, C.D., Aves Brasileiras e Plantas que as atraem, São Paulo: Dalgas Ecotec, 2005, 398, ISBN 978-85-85015-07-7
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Notes

Common Names

FG Creole: macata. Surinam: boontje krere krere, krekrere, krere-krere, sabinabloem. Surinam Djuka Bush Negro: ayoowiri. Surinam Sranan: djoepinda.

  • Amshoff, G.J.H. 1939. Papilionaceae, pp. 1-257. In: Pulle, A., ed., Flora of Suriname. Vol. 2, Part 2. Amsterdam: J.H. De Bussy.
  • Counter, S.A. and D.L. Evans. 1981. I Sought My Brother: An Afro-American Reunion. 276 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, England: MIT Press.
  • Grenand, P., Moretti, C. and H. Jacquemin. 1987. Pharmacopées Traditionnelles en Guyane: Créoles, Palikur, Wayapi. 569 pp. Paris: Editions de l'ORSTOM.
  • Heckel, E. 1897. Les Plantes Médicinales et Toxiques de la Guyane Francaise. 93 pp. Macon, France: Protat Freres.
  • Heyde, H. 1987. Surinaamse Medicijnplanten. Ed. 2. 112 pp. Paramaribo, Surinam: Westfort. (Followed by: Heyde, H. 1990. Medecijn Planten in Suriname (Den Dresi Wiwiri foe Sranan). 157 pp. Paramaribo, Surinam: Stichting Gezondheidsplanten Informatie).
  • May, A.F. 1982. Surinaams Kruidenboek (Sranan Oso Dresi). 80 pp. Paramaribo, Surinam: Vaco; and Zutphen, The Netherlands: De Walburg Pers.

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Comments

It is a beautiful ornamental shrub, reputed to have medicinal properties also. Roots are used for infantile convulsions, flowers for intestinal worms, coughs and chronic catarrh and leaves are reputed to have purgative action and abortifacient. (Bor and Raizada, Some Beaut. Ind. Cl. Shrubs, 56. 1954).
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Synonyms

  • Amshoff, G.J.H. 1939. Papilionaceae, pp. 1-257. In: Pulle, A., ed., Flora of Suriname. Vol. 2, Part 2. Amsterdam: J.H. De Bussy.
  • Counter, S.A. and D.L. Evans. 1981. I Sought My Brother: An Afro-American Reunion. 276 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, England: MIT Press.
  • Grenand, P., Moretti, C. and H. Jacquemin. 1987. Pharmacopées Traditionnelles en Guyane: Créoles, Palikur, Wayapi. 569 pp. Paris: Editions de l'ORSTOM.
  • Heckel, E. 1897. Les Plantes Médicinales et Toxiques de la Guyane Francaise. 93 pp. Macon, France: Protat Freres.
  • Heyde, H. 1987. Surinaamse Medicijnplanten. Ed. 2. 112 pp. Paramaribo, Surinam: Westfort. (Followed by: Heyde, H. 1990. Medecijn Planten in Suriname (Den Dresi Wiwiri foe Sranan). 157 pp. Paramaribo, Surinam: Stichting Gezondheidsplanten Informatie).
  • May, A.F. 1982. Surinaams Kruidenboek (Sranan Oso Dresi). 80 pp. Paramaribo, Surinam: Vaco; and Zutphen, The Netherlands: De Walburg Pers.

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