Articles on this page are available in 1 other language: Spanish (1) (learn more)

Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Western Ghats, Naturalized, Native of Mediterranean Region"
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Range Description

T. incarnatum is native to much of southern Europe, as well as the UK and Turkey. It is naturalized and widely cultivated in many temperate regions (USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program 2010). In France it is widespread, occurring in the majority of departments; however, it is not recorded in 12 departments in the northern half of the country or the department of Lot in the south (Association Tela Botanica 2000–2010).

In the UK Trifolium incarnatum ssp. molinerii is recorded as native in only three localities on the Lizard peninsula in west Cornwall and Jersey (Preston et al. 2002). It is also present in six more localities along the south coast of England and one locality in East Anglia but these are all recorded as alien (Preston et al. 2002). In Spain, most of the locations are naturalized; the populations in Huesca are the only ones that are native (Muñoz Rodríguez et al. 2000).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Tamil Nadu: Dindigul
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution in Egypt

Nile Valley North of Nubia (Delta).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Source: Bibliotheca Alexandrina - EOL Ar

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution: Europe, introduced in Pakistan (Mastung).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution and adaptation

Crimson clover will grow on poorer soils than most other clovers, thriving on both well-drained sandy and clayey soils. It does not do well in extreme cold or heat. The preferable pH range is 6.0 to 7.0. After the seedlings become well established, it makes good growth at lower temperatures than most other clovers. Crimson clover has been used for a cover crop as far north as northern Maine; primary growing areas are the Southeast and southern Atlantic coastal states.

For a current distribution map, please consult the Plant Profile page for this species on the PLANTS Website.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS Plant Materials Program

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Erect annual. Leaflets 1-2.5 cm long, broadly obovate, obtuse or retuse. Stipules ovate with obtuse or retuse apex. Inflorescence a compact head, oblong-ovoid to cylindrical, 1-1.5 cm wide; peduncle long. Calyx pubescent, teeth equal, as long as or longer than the tube. Corolla yellowish white to deep red. Vexillum 10-15 mm long, equalling or exceeding the calyx.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

Habit: Annual
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
T. incarnatum grows in fields, meadows, pastures and roadsides (Zohary and Heller 1984). It is an annual species, flowering between May and August. It favours sandy and clay soils, and is tolerant of an average annual precipitation of 920 mm, temperatures between 5.9ºC and 21.3ºC, and soil pH ranging from 4.8 to 8.2 (Duke 1981).

In the UK Trifolium incarnatum ssp. molinerii is a lowland species which is strictly maritime as it only grows within 200 m of the sea (Preston et al. 2002). It prefers open habitats such as cliff-slopes that are severely droughted in the summer (Preston et al. 2002).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Dispersal

Establishment

Crimson clover seed should be inoculated for planting on critical areas where bacteria may have been lost in erosion of the surface. On sites that have been in pasture or hay, this is probably no longer necessary.

Soils should be brought up to moderate to high levels of phosphorus and potash prior to planting clovers, but nitrogen should not be applied unless degraded sites are being planted. Plant in the spring or late summer. Clovers may be frost seeded in late winter. The best planting method is to drill the seed into a firm, weed free seedbed. No-till methods can be used successfully when effective weed control is employed. Seeding rates range from 10 to 15 lb/acre when seeded alone and 5 to 10 lb/acre when seeded in a mixture. Seed should be planted at about a ¼ inch depth.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS Plant Materials Program

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / parasite
conidial anamorph of Erysiphe trifolii parasitises live Trifolium incarnatum

Foodplant / open feeder
Hypera meles grazes on leaf of Trifolium incarnatum

Foodplant / parasite
hypophyllous telium of Uromyces fallens parasitises live leaf of Trifolium incarnatum
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Trifolium incarnatum

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Trifolium incarnatum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2011

Assessor/s
Osborne, J.

Reviewer/s
Maxted, N. & Nieto, A.

Contributor/s

Justification

European regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)

EU 27 regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)

Trifolium incarnatum is a common species with a widespread distribution and with no major threats, therefore it is classified as Least Concern.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Status

Please consult the PLANTS Web site and your State Department of Natural Resources for this plant’s current status (e.g. threatened or endangered species, state noxious status, and wetland indicator values).

Public Domain

USDA NRCS Plant Materials Program

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population

Population
The exact population size is unknown, but the species is common across Europe from Britain to Turkey. It is found in a variety of habitats and populations are stable.

Population Trend
Stable
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Major Threats
There appears to be no major threats and this species is found in several habitats which are not threatened within its range.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
T. incarnatum is specifically listed in Annex I of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture as part of the forage legume gene pool so warrants specific conservation attention.

Ex situ seed samples are available in numerous gene banks with the largest collections being held by the Trifolium Genetic Resource Centre in Perth, Australia (81 accessions), and the National Plant Germplasm System in Washington, USA (34 accessions) N.I. Vavilov All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Plant Industry Russian Federation, Aegean Agricultural Research Institiute (Menemen, Turkey), ICARDA (Aleppo, Syria) and University of Aberystwyth (Aberystwyth , UK) gene banks (Lamont et al. 2001).

EURISCO reports 126 germplasm accessions held in European genebanks, 11 of which are reported to be of wild or weedy origin. Of the wild accessions, nine originate from within Europe. These nine wild accessions originate from Bulgaria (one), Italy (two), Macedonia FYR (two), Spain (3) and Ukraine (one) (EURISCO Catalogue 2010).

In situ the species is likely to be passively conserved in many existing protected areas in throughout its range but as its conservation in these sites is not actively monitored it may be subject to population loss over time from factors such as climate change.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

These species are introduced in Switzerland.
  • Aeschimann, D. & C. Heitz. 2005. Synonymie-Index der Schweizer Flora und der angrenzenden Gebiete (SISF). 2te Auflage. Documenta Floristicae Helvetiae N° 2. Genève.   http://www.crsf.ch/ External link.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Info Flora (CRSF/ZDSF) & Autoren 2005

Supplier: Name It's Source (profile not public)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Control

Please contact your local agricultural extension specialist or county weed specialist to learn what works best in your area and how to use it safely. Always read label and safety instructions for each control method. Trade names and control measures appear in this document only to provide specific information. USDA, NRCS does not guarantee or warranty the products and control methods named, and other products may be equally effective.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS Plant Materials Program

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Cultivars, improved and selected materials (and area of origin)

Most crimson clover types used in the past were common types. However, more recent introductions featured reseeding types such as ‘Auburn’, ‘Autauga’, ‘Dixie’, and ‘Talledega’. ‘AU Sunrise’ (composite of 11 accession from FL, AL, GA, SC) is a reseeding cultivar from the Jimmy Carter Plant Materials Center in Georgia. The release is well-adapted to Alabama and Georgia, and can grow into Florida and Mississippi.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS Plant Materials Program

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Pasture and hayland management varies depending upon the forages in use, but should be based upon the grasses involved since they are the “meat and potatoes” of the mix. Graze or cut for hay when the crimson clover is in the early bloom stage (¼ to ½ in bloom). If used as a winter pasture, grazing should not be too close as to affect stand and yields the following spring. Grazing or hay cutting as this clover reaches maturity may be harmful. Hairs of stems and heads become hard and tough. If used as a green manure, manage the crop so it is plowed under about 2 to 3 weeks before the next crop is planted.

Clover especially needs a high level of phosphorous. High inputs of nitrogen fertilizer will damage clover and other legumes by reducing their vigor and boosting the grass.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS Plant Materials Program

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Weediness

This plant may become weedy or invasive in some regions or habitats and may displace desirable vegetation if not properly managed. Please consult with your local NRCS Field Office, Cooperative Extension Service office, or state natural resource or agriculture department regarding its status and use. Weed information is also available from the PLANTS Web site at plants.usda.gov.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS Plant Materials Program

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Animal management

Animal management note: on pasture or hay high in clover content, take steps to introduce animals gradually to the forage or the risk of bloat can be high.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS Plant Materials Program

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

Crimson clover, as a winter annual, is usually planted in the late summer to early fall. It used in pasture, hay, and silage mixes, or used alone as a winter cover for soil protection or green manure crop for soil improvement.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS Plant Materials Program

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Trifolium incarnatum

Trifolium incarnatum, known as crimson clover or Italian clover, is a species of clover in the family Fabaceae, native to most of Europe. The species name incarnatum means "blood red".

This upright annual herb grows to 20-50 cm tall, unbranched or branched only at the base. The leaves are trifoliate with a long petiole, each leaflet hairy, 8-16 mm across, with a truncated or bilobed apex. The flowers are produced throughout the spring and summer, rich red or crimson, congested on an elongated spike inflorescence 3-5 cm tall and 1.5 cm broad; the individual flowers are up to 10-13 mm long and have five petals. The banner of each flower does not sit upright, but folds forward.

Cultivation and uses[edit]

Crimson clover growing in Texas.

Crimson clover is widely grown as a protein-rich forage crop for cattle and other livestock. It can typically be found in forest margins, fields and roadsides.

It is sown as quickly as possible after the removal of a grain crop at the rate of 20-22 kg/ha. It is found to succeed better when only the surface of the soil is stirred by the scarifier and harrow than when a plowing is given. It grows rapidly in spring, and yields an abundant crop of green food, particularly palatable to live stock. It is also suitable for making into hay. Only one cutting, however, can be obtained, as it does not shoot again after being mown.

In Great Britain it is most valuable in the south, though less successful in northern regions.

It has been introduced into the United States, originally as forage for cattle. It is often used for roadside erosion control, as well as beautification; it tends, however, to eliminate all other desirable spring and early-summer species of native vegetation in the area where it is planted.

References and external links[edit]

Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!