Overview

Distribution

Range Description

Widespread in Brazil.
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Physical Description

Type Information

Type collection for Dipteryx pteropus Mart.
Catalog Number: US 2249579
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Card file verified by examination of alleged type specimen
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): ex herb. K.F.P von Martius
Locality: Minas Gerais, Brazil, South America
  • Type collection: Martius, K. F. P. von. 1837. Flora. 20: 127.
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Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This tree is confined to cerrados.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Dipteryx alata

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Dipteryx alata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Dipteryx alata aff.

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
VU
Vulnerable

Red List Criteria
A1cd

Version
2.3

Year Assessed
1998
  • Needs updating

Assessor/s
World Conservation Monitoring Centre

Reviewer/s

Contributor/s

History
  • 1997
    Endangered
    (Walter and Gillett 1998)
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Threats

Major Threats
The species has suffered from habitat conversion for agriculture. In addition, exploitation of its excellent quality timber and medicinal seeds has led to massive declines in population numbers.
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Wikipedia

Dipteryx alata

Dipteryx alata (Baru) is a species of legume in the family Fabaceae. It is a large tree, usually referred to as "Baruzeiro" (Baru tree) in Portuguese and its fruits or almond-like beans are known as Baru. Other names besides Baru are Cumaru, Cumbaru, Barujo, Coco-feijão, Cumarurana, Emburena-brava, Feijão-coco, and Pau-cumaru.

It is found only in the Cerrado region of Brazil, and the Chiquitano region of eastern Bolivia, and is threatened by habitat loss. Historically it has been used as lumber, for charcoal production and for shade in pastures. The fruits are used as feed for cattle bovine and are also an important food source for small mammals, rodents, birds, bats, etc. They are also consumed by people.

The tree can measure up to 25 m in height, 0.7 m in diameter and have a useful lifespan of 60 years. A tree will produce about 150 kg of fruit per harvest.

Its brown fruits are either collected from the ground or picked from the tree when they are almost ripe. A fruit usually weighs 25g of which 30% is pulp, 65% is ligneous endocarp and 5% is seed (bean/almond).

Fruits of Dipteryx alata.l

Out of the fruit, the pulp is sweet and can be consumed fresh, but is also used to manufacture jams, jellies, and liquors; the beans (Baru almonds) are rich in flavor and are typically served after being roasted and salted or as a part of any number of dishes including bread, cakes, Pesto sauce and ice cream; additionally the oil extracted from the almonds may be used as a culinary ingredient or in many other varied forms. Baru is rich in proteins, fibers, magnesium, potassium and iron and has a high energy content.

The uses for the Baru fruit can be summarized as[citation needed]:

Products and sub-products of Baru fruit and their uses
Part of the FruitProduct/Sub-ProductUses
PulpPulp in naturaHuman food
Animal food
Medicinal/Pharmaceutical
Dehydrated PulpHuman food
Animal food
Medicinal/Pharmaceutical
FlourHuman food
Alcohol/LiqueurHuman consumption
Medicinal/Pharmaceutical
Cosmetics
Industrial
ResiduesFarming (organic fertilizer)
AlmondRaw almondHuman food
Animal food
Medicinal/Pharmaceutical
Agricultural (seeding)
Roasted AlmondHuman Food
FlourHuman Food
MilkHuman Food
OilHuman food
Medicinal/Pharmaceutical
Cosmetics
Industrial
CakeHuman food
Medicinal/Pharmaceutical
Cosmetics
Industrial
Paste/ButterHuman food
Ligneous endocarpCharcoalFuel
Pyroligneous acid and tarIndustrial
Ligneous EndocarpArtisanry

Additionally[citation needed]:

Baru almond, nutrition facts
Per 100 g
Protein23.9 g
Total fat38.2 g
Saturated fat7.18 g
Unsaturated fat31.02 g
Total fiber13.4 g
Carbohydrates15.8 g
Calcium140 mg
Potassium827 mg
Phosphorus358 mg
Magnesium178 mg
Copper1.45 mg
Iron4.24 mg
Manganese4.9 mg
Zinc4.1 mg
Calories502

Source[edit]

See also[edit]

Portuguese Wikipedia article on Baru

Chemical composition of seeds and oil of baru (Dipteryx alata Vog.) native from Pirenópolis, State of Goiás, Brazil


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