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Overview

Brief Summary

Pisum sativum, the common pea (also known as the garden or field pea), is an herbaceous annual in the Fabaceae (formerly Leguminosae) family, originally from the Mediterraean basin and Near East, but now widely grown for its seedpod or legume (a simple dry fruit containing several seeds and splitting along seams on two sides). The term “pea” can refer to small spherical seed or to the pod. The name “peas” is also used to describe other edible seeds from the Fabaceae, such as chickpeas (Cicer arietinum), pigeon peas (Cajanus cajan), cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata), and sweet peas (several Lathyrus spp.), which are grown as ornamentals.

P. sativum cultivars are either low growing (less than 0.75 meters) or vining. The vining cultivars grow thin tendrils from leaves that coil around any available support and can climb to be 1–2 m high. P. sativum is a cool-season crop grown in many parts of the world; planting can take place from winter to early summer depending on location. The distinctive flower has 5 fused sepals, 5 petals, 10 stamens (9 fused in a staminal tube and 1 stamen is free), and one carpel, which develops into a pod with multiple peas. The average pea weighs 0.1 to 0.4 grams.

Peas appear to have been cultivated for nearly 7,000 years. The earliest archaeological finds of peas come from Neolithic Syria, Turkey and Jordan. In Egypt, evidence of peas dates from ca. 4800–4400 BC.

Peapods are botanically a fruit, but peas are called a vegetable in cooking. They are used as a vegetable, fresh, frozen or canned, and some varieties, such as split peas, are dried; these varieties are typically called field peas. Along with broad beans and lentils, these formed an important part of the diet of most people in the Middle East, North Africa and Europe during the Middle Ages. By the 17th and 18th centuries it had become popular to eat peas "green," or fresh, while they are immature and right after they are picked, especially in France and England. The popularity of green peas spread to North America, where Thomas Jefferson grew more than 30 cultivars of peas on his estate. The “pease porridge” of nursery-rhyme fame is a traditional dish in England made from yellow dried peas.

Peas are high in fiber, protein, vitamins (folate and vitamin C), minerals (iron, magnesium, phosphorus and zinc), and lutein (a yellow carotenoid pigment that benefits vision). Dry weight is about one-quarter protein and one-quarter carbohydrates (mostly sugars).

Global production in 2009 of green peas was 16 million tons, harvested from 2.1 million hectares, with an additional 10.5 million tons of dried peas, from 6.2 million hectares (FAOSTAT 2011). In some agricultural regions, such as the Punjab in India, peas are second only to wheat as a cultivated crop (Singla et al. 2006).

  • FAOSTAT. 2011. Online statistics database of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Statistics on dry peas and green peas, retrieved 3 November 2011 from http://faostat.fao.org/site/291/default.aspx.
  • Singla, R., S.S. Chahal, and P. Kataria. 2006. Economics of Production of Green Peas (Pisum sativum L.) in Punjab. Agricultural Economics Research Review 19: 237–250.
  • Wikipedia. 2011."Pea." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 20 Oct 2011, 09:12 UTC. 31 Oct 2011. Wikipedia
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Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

Notes: Cultivated
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Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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"Maharashtra: Ahmednagar, Kolhapur, Pune, Satara"
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Global Distribution

Mediterranean region, southeast Europe, west Asia.

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Cosmopolitan in cultivation.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Annual, often climbing, stem glabrous, glaucous. Leaf paripinnately compound, rachis ending in a branched tendril, leaflets 2-8, entire or dentate; stipules 1.5-8 cm long, obliquely ovate, toothed at least below, semi-amplexicaul at the base, peduncle ½ to twice as long as the stipule, 1-3-flowered. Calyx 8-15 mm long, teeth longer than the tube, subequal. Corolla white or vexillum lilac and reddish purple. Vexillum 16-30 mm long. Fruit 40-70 mm long, 12-17 mm broad.
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Physical Description

Annual, Herbs, Vines, twining, climbing, Taproot present, Nodules present, Stems prostrate, trailing, or mat forming, Stems less than 1 m tall, Climbing by tendrils, Stems hollow, or spongy, Stems or young twigs glabrous or sparsely glabrate, Leaves alternate, Leaves petiolate, Stipules conspicuous, Stipules green, triangu late to lanceolate or foliaceous, Stipules persistent, Stipules free, Stipules cordate, lobed, or sagittate, Stipules toothed or laciniate, Leaves compound, Leaves even pinnate, Leaf or leaflet margins entire, Leaflets opposite, Leaflets 2, Leaflets 4, Leaflets 5-9, Leaves glabrous or nearly so, Flowers solitary in axils, or appearing solitary, Flowers in axillary clusters or few-floweredracemes, 2-6 flowers, Inflorescence axillary, Bracts very small, absent or caducous, Flowers zygomorphic, Calyx 5-lobed, Calyx glabrous, Petals separate, Corolla papilionaceous, Petals white, Petals pinkish to rose, Petals blue, lavander to purple, or violet, Banner petal suborbicular, broadly rounded, Wing petals narrow, oblanceolate to oblong, Wing petals incurved, Wing tips obtuse or rounded, Keel tips obtuse or rounded, not beaked, Stamens 9-10, Stamens diadelphous, 9 united, 1 free, Filaments hairy, villous, Style terete, Style sharply bent, Style hairy, Style hairy on one side only, Fr uit a legume, Fruit unilocular, Fruit freely dehiscent, Fruit indehiscent, Fruit elongate, straight, Fruit exserted from calyx, Fruit inflated or turgid, Fruit glabrous or glabrate, Fruit 3-10 seeded, Seeds ovoid to rounded in outline, Seed surface smooth, Seed surface wrinkled or rugose, Seeds olive, brown, or black.
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Elevation Range

1200-4000 m
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

Habit: Climber
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Ecology

Associations

Foodplant / sap sucker
Acyrthosiphon pisum sucks sap of live growth (young) of Pisum sativum

Foodplant / miner
solitary larva of Agromyza lathyri mines leaf of Pisum sativum

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / pathogen
oospore of Aphanomyces euteiches infects and damages rotten root of Pisum sativum

Foodplant / spot causer
pycnidium of Ascochyta coelomycetous anamorph of Ascochyta pinodella causes spots on live pod of Pisum sativum

Foodplant / spot causer
immersed, then erumpent, brownish pycnidium of Ascochyta coelomycetous anamorph of Ascochyta pisi causes spots on live seed of Pisum sativum
Remarks: season: 5-10

Foodplant / pathogen
Bean Yellow Mosaic virus infects and damages live Pisum sativum

Plant / resting place / on
adult of Bruchus atomarius may be found on Pisum sativum

Foodplant / feeds on
adult of Bruchus pisorum feeds on pollen of Pisum sativum
Remarks: season: 4-7(-9)

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Bruchus rufimanus feeds within seed of Pisum sativum

Plant / associate
adult of Bruchus rufipes is associated with Pisum sativum
Remarks: season: (late 3-)5-6(-11)

Plant / resting place / within
puparium of Chromatomyia horticola may be found in leaf-mine (end of) of Pisum sativum

Foodplant / internal feeder
caterpillar of Cydia nigricana feeds within live pea of Pisum sativum
Remarks: season: 7-8

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Delia platura feeds on live seedling of Pisum sativum

Foodplant / pathogen
Ditylenchus dipsaci infects and damages live, swollen, stunted or malformed leaf of Pisum sativum

Foodplant / parasite
conidial anamorph of Erysiphe pisi var. pisi parasitises live pod of Pisum sativum

Foodplant / gall
Heterodera goettingiana causes gall of cysted root of Pisum sativum

Foodplant / feeds on
Kakothrips pisivorous feeds on live, misshapen leaf of Pisum sativum

Foodplant / miner
larva of Liriomyza congesta mines leaf of Pisum sativum
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / miner
larva of Liriomyza pisivora mines leaf of Pisum sativum

Foodplant / pathogen
amphigenous colony of Mycocentrospora anamorph of Mycocentrospora acerina infects and damages live leaf of Pisum sativum
Remarks: captive: in captivity, culture, or experimentally induced

Foodplant / spot causer
pycnidium of Ascochyta coelomycetous anamorph of Mycosphaerella pinodes causes spots on live leaf of Pisum sativum

Plant / associate
extensive, velvety colony of Cladosporium dematiaceous anamorph of Mycosphaerella tulasnei is associated with seed of Pisum sativum
Other: unusual host/prey

Plant / resting place / within
puparium of Ophiomyia orbiculata may be found in stem of Pisum sativum

Foodplant / pathogen
Pea Enation Mosaic virus infects and damages poorly developed, rough, crinkly pod of Pisum sativum

Foodplant / pathogen
Pea Mosaic virus infects and damages mottled leaf of Pisum sativum

Foodplant / parasite
sporangium of Peronospora viciae parasitises live pod of Pisum sativum
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / spot causer
pycnidium of Phoma coelomycetous anamorph of Phoma pinodella causes spots on live pod of Pisum sativum

Foodplant / spot causer
scattered, brownish-yellow then black pycnidium of Septoria coelomycetous anamorph of Septoria pisi causes spots on fading leaf of Pisum sativum

Foodplant / feeds on
adult of Sitona lineatus feeds on live leaf of Pisum sativum
Remarks: season: 6-

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Sitona macularius feeds on Pisum sativum

Foodplant / parasite
telium of Uromyces pisi-sativi parasitises live leaf (petiole) of Pisum sativum

Foodplant / parasite
pycnium of Uromyces viciae-fabae var. viciae-fabae parasitises live Pisum sativum

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Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Annual.

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Evolution and Systematics

Functional Adaptations

Functional adaptation

Biofilm inhibition protects surfaces: peas
 

Pea seedlings inhibit bacterial biofilm formation by exuding a unique chemical compound.

   
  "Recently, Bauer and colleagues showed that exudates from pea seedlings (Pisum sativum) and other plant sources (including the unicellular soil-freshwater alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii) were found to contain a range of compounds that mimicked N-acyl-HSL signals in several bacterial reporter strains (reviewed in ref. 41). In some cases, these extracts inhibited quorum sensing dependent phenotypes, suggesting that the active compounds may have potential as quorum sensing-blockers. Although the chemical nature of the active mimic compounds is not (yet) known, they are apparently not N-acyl-HSL." (Welch et al. 2005:201)
  Learn more about this functional adaptation.
  • Welch, M.; Mikkelsen, H.; Swatton, J. E.; Smith, D.; Thomas, G. L.; Glansdorp, F. G.; Spring, D. R. 2005. Cell-cell communication in Gram-negative bacteria. Mol Biosyst. 1(3): 196-202.
  • Bauer WD; Mathesius U. Plant responses to bacterial quorum sensing signals. Current Opinion in Plant Biology. 7(4): 429-433.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Pisum sativum

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pisum sativum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 4
Specimens with Barcodes: 9
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Management

These species are introduced in Switzerland.
  • Aeschimann, D. & C. Heitz. 2005. Synonymie-Index der Schweizer Flora und der angrenzenden Gebiete (SISF). 2te Auflage. Documenta Floristicae Helvetiae N° 2. Genève.   http://www.crsf.ch/ External link.
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Wikipedia

Pea

This article is about the plant and its variations. For other uses, see Pea (disambiguation).

The pea is most commonly the small spherical seed or the seed-pod of the pod fruit Pisum sativum.[1] Each pod contains several peas. Peapods are botanically a fruit,[2] since they contain seeds developed from the ovary of a (pea) flower. The name is also used to describe other edible seeds from the Fabaceae such as the pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan), the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), and the seeds from several species of Lathyrus.

P. sativum is an annual plant, with a life cycle of one year. It is a cool season crop grown in many parts of the world; planting can take place from winter to early summer depending on location. The average pea weighs between 0.1 and 0.36 grams.[3] The immature peas (and in snow peas the tender pod as well) are used as a vegetable, fresh, frozen or canned; varieties of the species typically called field peas are grown to produce dry peas like the split pea shelled from the matured pod. These are the basis of pease porridge and pea soup, staples of medieval cuisine; in Europe, consuming fresh immature green peas was an innovation of Early Modern cuisine.

The wild pea is restricted to the Mediterranean basin and the Near East. The earliest archaeological finds of peas date from the late neolithic era of current Greece, Syria, Turkey and Jordan. In Egypt, early finds date from ca. 4800–4400 BC in the Nile delta area, and from ca. 3800–3600 BC in Upper Egypt. The pea was also present in Georgia in the 5th millennium BC. Farther east, the finds are younger. Peas were present in Afghanistan ca. 2000 BC, in Harappa, Pakistan, and in northwest India in 2250–1750 BC. In the second half of the 2nd millennium BC, this pulse crop appears in the Gangetic basin and southern India.[4]

Description[edit]

A pea is a most commonly green, occasionally purple[5] or golden yellow,[6] pod-shaped vegetable, widely grown as a cool season vegetable crop. The seeds may be planted as soon as the soil temperature reaches 10 °C (50 °F), with the plants growing best at temperatures of 13 to 18 °C (55 to 64 °F). They do not thrive in the summer heat of warmer temperate and lowland tropical climates, but do grow well in cooler, high altitude, tropical areas. Many cultivars reach maturity about 60 days after planting.

Worldwide pea yield
Peas, green, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy339 kJ (81 kcal)
14.45 g
Sugars5.67 g
Dietary fiber5.1 g
0.4 g
5.42 g
Vitamins
Vitamin A equiv.
(5%)
38 μg
(4%)
449 μg
2477 μg
Thiamine (B1)
(23%)
0.266 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(11%)
0.132 mg
Niacin (B3)
(14%)
2.09 mg
Vitamin B6
(13%)
0.169 mg
Folate (B9)
(16%)
65 μg
Vitamin C
(48%)
40 mg
Vitamin E
(1%)
0.13 mg
Vitamin K
(24%)
24.8 μg
Trace metals
Calcium
(3%)
25 mg
Iron
(11%)
1.47 mg
Magnesium
(9%)
33 mg
Manganese
(20%)
0.41 mg
Phosphorus
(15%)
108 mg
Potassium
(5%)
244 mg
Sodium
(0%)
5 mg
Zinc
(13%)
1.24 mg

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Peas have both low-growing and vining cultivars. The vining cultivars grow thin tendrils from leaves that coil around any available support and can climb to be 1–2 m high. A traditional approach to supporting climbing peas is to thrust branches pruned from trees or other woody plants upright into the soil, providing a lattice for the peas to climb. Branches used in this fashion are sometimes called pea brush. Metal fences, twine, or netting supported by a frame are used for the same purpose. In dense plantings, peas give each other some measure of mutual support. Pea plants can self-pollinate.[7]

History[edit]

Pea in a painting by Mateusz Tokarski, ca. 1795 (National Museum in Warsaw).

In early times, peas were grown mostly for their dry seeds.[8] From plants growing wild in the Mediterranean basin, constant selection since the Neolithic dawn of agriculture[9] improved their yield. In the early 3rd century BC Theophrastus mentions peas among the pulses that are sown late in the winter because of their tenderness.[10] In the first century AD Columella mentions them in De re rustica, and Roman legionaries still gathered wild pisi from the sandy soils of Numidia and Palestine, to supplement their rations.

In the Middle Ages, field peas are constantly mentioned, as they were the staple that kept famine at bay, as Charles the Good, count of Flanders noted explicitly in 1124.[11] In the 13th century the poet Guillaume de Villeneuve noted

J'ay pois en cosse touz noviaux

among the street cries of Paris.[12]

Green "garden" peas, eaten immature and fresh, were an innovative luxury of Early Modern Europe. In England, the distinction between "field peas" and "garden peas" dates from the early 17th century: John Gerard and John Parkinson both mention garden peas. Sugar peas, which the French soon called mange-tout, for they were consumed pods and all, were introduced to France from the market gardens of Holland in the time of Henri IV, through the French ambassador. Green peas were introduced from Genoa to the court of Louis XIV of France in January 1660, with some staged fanfare; a hamper of them were presented before the King, and then were shelled by the Sovoyan comte de Soissons, who had married a niece of Cardinal Mazarin; little dishes of peas were then presented to the King, the Queen, Cardinal Mazarin and Monsieur, the king's brother.[13] Immediately established and grown for earliness warmed with manure and protected under glass, they were still a luxurious delicacy in 1696, when Mme de Maintenon and Mme de Sevigné each reported that they were "a fashion, a fury."[14]

Modern split peas, with their indigestible skins rubbed off, are a development of the later 19th century.

Modern culinary use[edit]

Split peas (raw)
Split pea.jpg
Yellow split peas
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy1,425 kJ (341 kcal)
60 g
Sugars8 g
Dietary fiber26 g
1 g
25 g
Vitamins
Thiamine (B1)
(61%)
0.7 mg
(34%)
1.7 mg
Folate (B9)
(69%)
274 μg
Trace metals
Iron
(31%)
4 mg
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
Fresh peas for sale in their pods on a UK market stall
Frozen green peas

In modern times peas are usually boiled or steamed, which breaks down the cell walls and makes the taste sweeter and the nutrients more bioavailable. Along with broad beans and lentils, these formed an important part of the diet of most people in the Middle East, North Africa and Europe during the Middle Ages.[15] By the 17th and 18th centuries, it had become popular to eat peas "green", that is, while they are immature and right after they are picked. This was especially true in France and England, where the eating of green peas was said to be "both a fashion and a madness".[16][not in citation given] New cultivars of peas were developed by the English during this time, which became known as "garden" or "English" peas. The popularity of green peas spread to North America. Thomas Jefferson grew more than 30 cultivars of peas on his estate.[17] With the invention of canning and freezing of foods, green peas became available year-round, and not just in the spring as before.

Peas in fried rice

Fresh peas are often eaten boiled and flavored with butter and/or spearmint as a side dish vegetable. Salt and pepper are also commonly added to peas when served. Fresh peas are also used in pot pies, salads and casseroles. Pod peas (particularly sweet cultivars called mange tout and "sugar peas", or the flatter "snow peas," called hé lán dòu, in Chinese) are used in stir-fried dishes, particularly those in American Chinese cuisine.[18] Pea pods do not keep well once picked, and if not used quickly, are best preserved by drying, canning or freezing within a few hours of harvest.

In India, fresh peas are used in various dishes such as aloo matar (curried potatoes with peas) or matar paneer (paneer cheese with peas), though they can be substituted with frozen peas as well. Peas are also eaten raw, as they are sweet when fresh off the bush. Split peas are also used to make dhal, particularly in Guyana, and Trinidad, where there is a significant population of Indians.

Dried peas are often made into a soup or simply eaten on their own. In Japan, China, Taiwan and some Southeast Asian countries, including Thailand, the Philippines and Malaysia, peas are roasted and salted, and eaten as snacks. In the Philippines, peas, while still in their pods, are a common ingredient in viands and pansit. In the UK, dried yellow split peas are used to make pease pudding (or "pease porridge"), a traditional dish. In North America, a similarly traditional dish is split pea soup.

Pea soup is eaten in many other parts of the world, including northern Europe, parts of middle Europe, Russia, Iran, Iraq and India.[19] In Sweden it is called ärtsoppa, and is eaten as a traditional Swedish food which predates the Viking era. This food was made from a fast-growing pea that would mature in a short growing season. Ärtsoppa was especially popular among the many poor who traditionally only had one pot and everything was cooked together for a dinner using a tripod to hold the pot over the fire.

In Chinese cuisine, the tender new growth [leaves and stem] (豆苗; dòu miáo) are commonly used in stir-fries. Much like picking the leaves for tea, the farmers pick the tips off of the pea plant.

In Greece, Tunisia, Turkey, Cyprus, and other parts of the Mediterranean, peas are made into a stew with meat and potatoes.

In Hungary and Serbia, pea soup is often served with dumplings and spiced with hot paprika.

In the United Kingdom, dried, rehydrated and mashed marrowfat peas, known by the public as mushy peas, are popular, originally in the north of England, but now ubiquitously, and especially as an accompaniment to fish and chips or meat pies, particularly in fish and chip shops. Sodium bicarbonate is sometimes added to soften the peas. In 2005, a poll of 2,000 people revealed the pea to be Britain's seventh favourite culinary vegetable.[20]

Processed peas are mature peas which have been dried, soaked and then heat treated (processed) to prevent spoilage—in the same manner as pasteurising. Cooked peas are sometimes sold dried and coated with wasabi, salt, or other spices.

Grading[edit]

Pea grading involves sorting peas by size, in which smallest peas are graded as the highest quality for their tenderness.[21] Brines may be used, in which peas are floated in them, from which their density can be determined.[21]

Nutritional value[edit]

Peas are starchy, but high in fiber, protein, vitamins,[vague] minerals,[vague] and lutein. Dry weight is about one-quarter protein and one-quarter sugar.[22] Pea seed peptide fractions have less ability to scavenge free radicals than glutathione, but greater ability to chelate metals and inhibit linoleic acid oxidation.[23]

Varieties[edit]

There are many varieties (cultivars) of garden peas. Some of the most common varieties are listed here. PMR indicates some degree of powdery mildew resistance; afila types, also called semi-leafless, have clusters of tendrils instead of leaves.[24] Unless otherwise noted these are so called dwarf varieties which grow to an average height of about 1m. Extra dwarf are suitable for container growing, reaching only about 25 cm. Semi-tall reaches about 1.5m and tall grows to about 2m.

  • Alaska, 55 days (smooth seeded)
  • Tom Thumb, 55 days (heirloom, extra dwarf)[25]
  • Thomas Laxton (heirloom) / Laxton's Progress / Progress #9, 60–65 days
  • Mr. Big, 60 days, 2000 AAS winner
  • Little Marvel, 63 days, 1934 AAS winner
  • Early Perfection, 65 days[26]
  • Kelvedon Wonder, 65 days, 1997 RHS AGM winner[27]
  • Sabre, 65 days, PMR
  • Homesteader / Lincoln, 67 days (heirloom, known as Greenfeast in AU, NZ)
  • Miragreen, 68 days (semi-tall climber)
  • Serge, 68 days, PMR, afila
  • Wando, 68 days
  • Green Arrow, 70 days
  • Recruit, 70 days, PMR, afila[28]
  • Tall Telephone / Alderman, 75 days (heirloom, tall climber)

Other variations of P. sativum include:

Both of these are eaten whole before the pod reaches maturity and are hence also known as mange-tout, French for "eat all". The snow pea pod is eaten flat, while in sugar/snap peas, the pod becomes cylindrical, but is eaten while still crisp, before the seeds inside develop.

Pests and diseases[edit]

Main article: List of pea diseases

A variety of diseases affect peas through a number of pathogens, including insects, viruses, bacteria and fungi.[29] In particular, virus disease of peas has worldwide economic importance.[30]

Additionally, insects such as the pea leaf weevil (Sitona lineatus) can damage peas and other pod fruits. The pea leaf weevil is native to Europe, but has spread to other places such as Alberta, Canada. They are about 3.5 millimetres (0.14 in)—5.5 millimetres (0.22 in) long and are distinguishable by three light-coloured stripes running length-wise down the thorax. The weevil larvae feed on the root nodules of pea plants, which are essential to the plants' supply of nitrogen, and thus diminish leaf and stem growth. Adult weevils feed on the leaves and create a notched, "c-shaped" appearance on the outside of the leaves.[31]

Peas in science[edit]

Pea flowers

In the mid-19th century, Austrian monk Gregor Mendel's observations of pea pods led to the principles of Mendelian genetics, the foundation of modern genetics.[32] He ended up growing and examining about 28,000 pea plants in the course of his experiments.[33] Mendel chose peas for his experiments because he could grow them easily, develop pure-bred strains, protect them from cross-pollination, and control their pollination. Mendel cross-bred tall & dwarf pea plants, green & yellow peas, purple & white flowers, wrinkled & smooth peas, and a few other traits. He then observed the resulting offspring. In each of these cases, one trait is dominant and all the offspring, or Filial-1 (abbreviated F1) generation, showed the dominant trait. Then he crossed members of the F1 generation together and observed their offspring, the Filial-2 (abbreviated F2) generation. The F2 plants had the dominant trait in approximately a 3:1 ratio. Mendel reasoned that each parent had a 'vote' in the appearance of the offspring and the non-dominant or recessive trait appeared only when it was inherited from both parents. He did further experiments that showed each trait is separately inherited. Unwittingly, Mendel had solved a major problem with Charles Darwin's theory of evolution: how could new traits be preserved and not blended back into the population? But Darwin never learned about it. Mendel's work was published in an obscure Austrian journal and was not rediscovered until about 1900.[34]

Peas in medicine[edit]

Some people are allergic to peas, as well as lentils.[35]

Bioplastics[edit]

Bioplastics can be made using pea starch.

Etymology[edit]

The term pea originates from the Latin word pisum, which is the latinisation of the Greek πίσον (pison), neuter of πίσος (pisos) "pea".[36][37] It was adopted into English as the noun pease (plural peasen), as in pease pudding. However, by analogy with other plurals ending in –s, speakers began construing pease as a plural and constructing the singular form by dropping the –s, giving the term pea. This process is known as back-formation.

The name marrowfat pea for mature dried peas is recorded by the Oxford English Dictionary as early as 1733. The fact that an export cultivar popular in Japan is called Maro has led some people to assume mistakenly that the English name marrowfat is derived from Japanese.

Trivia[edit]

The annual 'Peasenhall Pea Festival' in the English village of Peasenhall, Suffolk attracts hundreds of visitors every year, with events such as Pea Shooting, the World Pea Podding Championships and National Pea Eating competition. In 2012, the Pea Festival had an OlymPEAn theme, celebrating the London 2012 Olympics.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Oxford English Dictionary - Pea
  2. ^ Rogers, Speed (2007). Man and the Biological World Read Books. pp. 169–170. ISBN 978-1-4067-3304-4 retrieved on 2009-04-15.
  3. ^ Pea
  4. ^ Zohary, Daniel and Hopf, Maria (2000). Domestication of Plants in the Old World, third edition. Oxford: University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-850356-9 p. 105–107
  5. ^ Purple podded peas
  6. ^ Pea Golden Podded, The Diggers Club
  7. ^ Alternative Field Crops Manual: Dry Field Pea
  8. ^ Maguelonne Toussaint-Samat, A History of Food, 2nd ed. 2009:38f.
  9. ^ Peas have been found in the Neolithic site of Abeurador in the south of France (Toussaint-Samat).
  10. ^ Theophrastus, VIII.i.4.
  11. ^ Edict quoted in Michel Pitrat and Claude Four, Histoires de légumes: Des origines à l'orée du XXIe siècle, "Le pois au cours des siècles" :353.
  12. ^ Pitrat and Four
  13. ^ An account is in Toussaint-Samat.
  14. ^ Quoted by Michel Pitrat and Claude Four.
  15. ^ Bianchini, F.; Corbetta, F. (1976), The Complete Book of Fruits and Vegetables, New York: Crown, p. 40, ISBN 978-0-517-52033-8 
  16. ^ Hedrick, U.P. (1919), "Sturtevant's Notes on Edible Plants", Report of the New York Agricultural Experiment Station for the Year 1919 II, Albany: J.B Lyon Company, State Printers, retrieved Feb 26, 2010 
  17. ^ Kafka, B. (2005), Vegetable Love, New York: Artisan, p. 297, ISBN 978-1-57965-168-8 
  18. ^ Healthnotes | Snow Peas | Selecting & Varieties
  19. ^ "Sanningen om ärtsoppan" (Swedish)[dead link]
  20. ^ Wainwright, Martin (2005-05-23). "Onions come top for British palates". The Guardian (London). 
  21. ^ a b Sivasankar, B. (2002). Food Processing and Preservation. PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd. pp. 175-177. ISBN 8120320867
  22. ^ Jegtvig, Shereen (July 17, 2007). "Peas". Nutrition. About.com. Retrieved 2011-01-28. 
  23. ^ Pownall TL, Udenigwe CC, Aluko RE (2010). "Amino acid composition and antioxidant properties of pea seed ( Pisum sativum L.) enzymatic protein hydrolysate fractions". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 58 (8): 4712–4718. doi:10.1021/jf904456r. PMID 20359226. 
  24. ^ "Peas-Western Oregon, Commercial Vegetable Production Guides". Oregon State University. 
  25. ^ "UT Garden's Plant of the Month". 
  26. ^ "Vegetable Cultivar Descriptions for North America". 
  27. ^ Kelvedon Wonder is popular in the United Kingdom, but uncommon elsewhere.
  28. ^ "Recruit Peas". 
  29. ^ Hagedorn, D. J. (1976). Handbook of pea diseases. University of Wisconsin - Extension. 
  30. ^ Hagedorn, Donald J. (1974). Virus Diseases of Pea, Pisum sativum. St. Paul, Minnesota: American Phytopathological Society. p. 7. 
  31. ^ Barkley, Shelley (2007-05-02). "Pea Leaf Weevil". Agriculture and Rural Development website. Government of Alberta. Retrieved 2009-04-05. 
  32. ^ Gregor Mendel: The Pea Plant Experiment
  33. ^ The Garden Pea Retrieved 14 April 2012.
  34. ^ Pitman, Sean D. The Father of Genetics May 2002. Retrieved 14 April 2012.
  35. ^ Sanchez-Monge, R.; G. Lopez-Torrejon, C. Y. Pascual, J. Varela, M. Martin-Esteban, G. Salcedo (2004). "Vicilin and convicilin are potential major allergens from pea". Clinical & Experimental Allergy 34 (11): 1747–1753. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2222.2004.02085.x. ISSN 0954-7894. 
  36. ^ Oxford English Dictionary
  37. ^ πίσος, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library

References[edit]

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