Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Dry Evergreen to Dry Deciduous Forests, often Cultivated"
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Description

Less common in Zimbabwe than B. variegata var. variegata, this variety is distinguished by its white flowers without any pink or purple in the centre.
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Derivation of specific name

variegata: irregularly coloured, blotched
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Description

Shrub or small spreading tree. Leaves typically lobed at the apex. Flowers from pure white (var. candida Voigt), to deep pink, usually with a dark purple-red centre on the upper petal; the calyx is markedly one-sided. Fruit a flattened pod, green and translucent when young, drying to blackish-brown. Last years fruits are often seen, split while still on the tree, during the next flowering season.
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Derivation of specific name

variegata: irregularly coloured, blotched
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is native to south China, Myanmar, North Thailand, Peoples Democratic Republic of Lao, and north Viet Nam. It is widely introduced and cultivated elswhere in the world which makes identification of the exact native range difficult.
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"Maharashtra: Kolhapur, Satara, Thane Karnataka: Chikmagalur, Mysore Kerala: Kannur, Thrissur Tamil Nadu: Coimbatore, Kancheepuram, Nilgiri, Salem, Thiruvallur, Tiruvannamalai"
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Bauhinia decora L. Uribe:
Colombia (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Bauhinia variegata L.:
Belize (Mesoamerica)
Burma (Asia)
Brazil (South America)
Cambodia (Asia)
Colombia (South America)
Ecuador (South America)
El Salvador (Mesoamerica)
Honduras (Mesoamerica)
India (Asia)
Laos (Asia)
Mexico (Mesoamerica)
Panama (Mesoamerica)
Thailand (Asia)
United States (North America)
Vietnam (Asia)
Caribbean (Caribbean)
Bolivia (South America)
Venezuela (South America)
China (Asia)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Worldwide distribution

Tropical Asia
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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Distribution: Kashmir; W. Pakistan; India (Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Bengal, Assam, Central India, Madras; Sikkim); Nepal; Burma; China; widely cultivated in tropics.
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Himalaya (Swat to Bhutan), India, Burma, China.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

Perennial, Trees, Woody throughout, Taproot present, Stems erect or ascending, Stems greater than 2 m tall, Stems solid, Stems or young twigs glabrous or sparsely glabrate, Leaves alternate, Leaves petiolate, Stipules inconspicuous, absent, or caducous, Leaves simple, or appearing so, Leaf or leaflet margins entire, Leaflets 1, Leaves glabrous or nearly so, Inflorescences racemes, Inflorescence axillary, Inflorescence terminal, Bracts very small, absent or caducous, Flowers actinomorphic or somewhat irregular, Calyx 5-lobed, Calyx glabrous, Petals separate, Petals white, Petals pinkish to rose, Petals blue, lavander to purple, or violet, Petals bicolored or with red, purple or yellow streaks or spots, Banner petal narrow or oblanceolate, Banner petal ovoid or obovate, Wing petals narrow, oblanceolate to oblong , Wing tips obtuse or rounded, Keel tips obtuse or rounded, not beaked, Fertile stamens 5, Stamens completely free, separate, Filaments glabrous, Style terete, Fruit a legume, Fruit stipitate, Fruit unilocular, Fruit freely dehiscent, Fruit elongate, straight, Fruit oblong or ellipsoidal, Fruit coriaceous or becoming woody, Fruit exserted from calyx, Fruit explosively or elastically dehiscent, Fruit glabrous or glabrate, Fruit 3-10 seeded, Fruit 11-many seeded, Seeds ovoid to rounded in outline, Seed surface smooth, Seeds olive, brown, or black.
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Dr. David Bogler

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Description

A medium sized tree with dark brown nearly smooth bark; young shoots pubescent. Leaves petiolate, petiole 2-3.8 cm long; lamina c. 4.5-15 cm long, as broad as or rather broader than long, with a medium cleft reaching from 1 /4 to 1/3 the way down, lobes obtuse, the base is deeply heart shaped, 9-15 nerved, pubescent beneath when young. Inflorescence few flowered pubescent raceme. Pedicel short or absent, bracteole minute; hypanthium slender, c. 1.2-2.5 cm long. Calyx 2.0-2.7 cm long, tomentose, 5 toothed at the apex. Petals 5-6.3 cm long, obovate, with long rather broad claw, all white or 4 petals pale purple and fifth darker with purple veins. Stamens 5, fertile, no staminodes. Ovary hairy, stipe 10-17 mm long; style long, stigma capitate. Pods 15.0-30 cm long, c. 1-2.5 cm broad, hard, flat, dehiscent 10-15 seeded; stipe glabrous.
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Elevation Range

150-1900 m
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

Habit: Moderate sized tree
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Type Information

Isotype for Bauhinia decora L. Uribe
Catalog Number: US 1875011
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Verified from the card file of type specimens
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): L. Uribe
Locality: Colombia, South America
  • Isotype: Uribe Uribe, A. L. 1941. Fl. Antioquia. 193.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species is found in deciduous forests.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Population Biology

Frequency

Local
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Frequency

Locally common in urban areas
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flower/Fruit

Fl. Per.: Feb.-April.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Bauhinia variegata

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Bauhinia variegata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 13
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
Chadburn, H.

Reviewer/s
Hilton-Taylor, C.

Contributor/s

Justification
The extent of occurrence (EOO), estimated area of occupancy (AOO) and inferred population exceed the thresholds. It is assessed as Least Concern (LC).
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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Population

Population
No population information is available. The most recent herbarium record used is dated 2003.

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
This species suffers from the general threat of human induced habitat loss.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
No specific conservation measures are in place for this species. It is widely cultivated and is listed as a species of the Horticultural Gardens in Lalbagh, Bangalore, India (Chakraverty et al. 2003), but was not found in availlable lists of seed bank species. It is known to occur in protected areas within its range, such as the Doi Khuntan National Park in Thailand.
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Wikipedia

Bauhinia variegata

Bauhinia variegata is a species of flowering plant in the family Fabaceae, native to South Asia and Southeast Asia, from southern China, Burma, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Common names include Orchid tree, Camel's Foot Tree, Kachnar and Mountain-ebony. It is a small to medium-sized tree growing to 10–12 metres (33–39 ft) tall, deciduous in the dry season. The leaves are 10–20 centimetres (3.9–7.9 in) long and broad, rounded, and bilobed at the base and apex. The flowers are conspicuous, bright pink or white, 8–12 centimetres (3.1–4.7 in) diameter, with five petals. The fruit is a pod 15–30 centimetres (5.9–11.8 in) long, containing several seeds.

This is a very popular ornamental tree in subtropical and tropical climates, grown for its scented flowers and also used as food item in South Asian cuisine. In the Neotropics, it can be used to attract hummingbirds – such as Sapphire-spangled Emerald (Amazilia lactea), Glittering-bellied Emerald (Chlorostilbon lucidus), or White-throated Hummingbird (Leucochloris albicollis) – into gardens and parks.[1] On the other hand, in some areas it has become naturalised and invasive.

Medicinal Uses[edit]

Acetone and methanol bark extracts of Bauhinia variegata has shown activity against some medically important bacterial strains.[2] Kachnar is used to cure asthma and ulcers. The buds and roots are good for digestive problems. [citation needed]

Gallery[edit]

Uses as Food[edit]

Kachnar is widely used as an ingredient in many Indian, Pakistani and Nepali recipes. Traditional Kachnar curry is prepared using chicken, kachnar, yogurt and spiced which is delicious and good for health.

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Baza Mendonça & dos Anjos (2005)
  2. ^ African Journal of Biomedical Research, Vol. 9 (2006); 53–56 ISSN 1119-5096 © Ibadan Biomedical Communications Group.

References[edit]

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Notes

Comments

Generally cultivated as an ornamental plant. The leaves are given to cattle as fodder, flowers are used as pot herb and also made into pickles; wood is used in buildings and for making agricultural implements. The plant yields gum; the bark is used for dyeing and tanning. The plant is reputed to have medicinal properties also; the root is tonic and carminative, the flowers laxative and the bark astringent; various parts of the plant are reputed to have healing properties also.
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