Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Cultivated in Parachinar, Kurram Valley and Lahore; native of China and Japan.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

Perennial, Trees, Woody throughout, Taproot present, Nodules present, Stems erect or ascending, Stems 1-2 m tall, Stems greater than 2 m tall, Stems solid, Stems or young twigs glabrous or s parsely glabrate, Leaves alternate, Leaves petiolate, Stipules inconspicuous, absent, or caducous, Stipules deciduous, Stipules free, Leaves compound, Leaves odd pinnate, Leaf or leaflet margins entire, Leaflets opposite, Leaflets alternate or subopposite, Leaflets 10-many, Leaves glabrous or nearly so, Inflorescence panicles, Inflorescence axillary, Inflorescence or flowers lax, declined or pendulous, Bracts very small, absent or caducous, Flowers zygomorphic, Calyx 5-lobed, Calyx glabrous, Petals separate, Corolla papilionaceous, Petals clawed, Petals white, Petals ochroleucous, cream colored, Petals pinkish to rose, Banner petal ovoid or obovate, Wing petals narrow, oblanceolate to oblong, Wing tips obtuse or rounded, Keel tips obtuse or rounded, not beaked, Stamens 9-10, Stamens completely free, separate, Filaments glabrous, Style terete, Style hairy, Fruit a legume, Fruit stipitate, Fruit unilocular, Fruit indehiscent, Fruit elongate, straight, Fruit or valves persisten t on stem, Fruit coriaceous or becoming woody, Fruit exserted from calyx, Fruit compressed between seeds, Fruit torulose or moniliform, strongly constricted between seeds, Fruit hairy, Fruit 3-10 seeded, Seeds ovoid to rounded in outline, Seed surface smooth, Seeds olive, brown, or black.
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Dr. David Bogler

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Description

A tall tree with spreading branches. Leaves c. 17.5-22.5 cm long; leaflets 7-17, c. 2.5-5 cm long, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, acute, glossy above pubescent below; petiolulate. Inflorescence a loose panicle, c. 37 cm long Flower yellowish white, c. 1.2 cm long. Fruit c. 5-7.5 cm long, c. 8-9 mm broad, stalked, glabrous, terete.
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Ecology

Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / parasite
Erysiphe diffusa parasitises Sophora japonica

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Inonotus hispidus is saprobic on dead trunk of Sophora japonica

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Perenniporia fraxinea is saprobic on live trunk (base) of Sophora japonica
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Pholiota squarrosa is saprobic on relatively freshly cut, white rotted stump of Sophora japonica

Foodplant / saprobe
scattered to grouped, subepidermal pycnidium of Phomopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Phomopsis sophorae is saprobic on dead twig of Sophora japonica
Remarks: season: 5

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Sophora japonica

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Sophora japonica

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 8
Specimens with Barcodes: 8
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Wikipedia

Styphnolobium japonicum

Styphnolobium japonicum (L.) Schott, the Pagoda Tree (Chinese Scholar, Japanese pagodatree; syn. Sophora japonica) is a species of tree in the subfamily Faboideae of the pea family Fabaceae.

It was formerly included within a broader interpretation of the genus Sophora. The species of Styphnolobium differ from Sophora in lacking the ability to form symbioses with rhizobia (nitrogen fixing bacteria) on their roots. It also differs from the related genus Calia (mescalbeans) in having deciduous leaves and flowers in axillary, not terminal, racemes. The leaves are pinnate, with 9-21 leaflets, and the flowers in pendulous racemes similar to those of the Black locust.

Distribution[edit]

Styphnolobium japonicum is native to eastern Asia (mainly China, despite the name; it was introduced in Japan), is a popular ornamental tree in Europe, North America and South Africa, grown for its white flowers, borne in late summer after most other flowering trees have long finished flowering. It grows into a lofty tree 10–20 m tall with an equal spread, and produces a fine, dark brown timber.

Styphnolobium japonicum leaves and flowers

Uses[edit]

Gardening[edit]

The Guilty Chinese Scholartree was a historic Pagoda Tree in Beijing, on which the last emperor of the Ming Dynasty, Chongzhen, hanged himself.

Traditional medicine[edit]

S. japonicum (Chinese: ; pinyin: huái; formerly Sophora japonica) is one of the 50 fundamental herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine.

Construction uses[edit]

Used to make the strong, springy curved "enju wood" handle used on the traditional Japanese woodworking adze, called the chouna.[3][4]

Medicinal properties[edit]

It has abortifacient, antibacterial, anticholesterolemic, antiinflammatory, antispasmodic, diuretic, emetic, emollient, febrifuge, hypotensive, purgative, styptic, and tonic properties.[dubious ][5][citation needed]

Chemistry[edit]

S. japonicum contains the isoflavone glycoside sophoricoside.

Chinese etymology[edit]

The Chinese name for the tree (槐) is composed of the word 木 ("wood") and 鬼 ("demon"). In folklore, it is said that a cowherd once built a home out of this species of tree, and within a month his entire family was suddenly found dead, with no signs of foul play. It was therefore believed that demons are drawn to this tree and it is therefore not appropriate to use its wood to build homes. In addition, in the wild, other species of tree rarely grow near it.

References[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

General references[edit]

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Asiatic; widely cultivated and recently noted as escaping in the eastern and midwestern United States (cf. Kartesz, 1999 Floristic Synthesis). Larry Morse 29Nov99.

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