The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes. 2003. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada
  • D. L. Pattie and N. A. M. Verbeek, Alpine birds of the Beartooth Mountains, Condor 68:167-176 (1966); Alpine mammals of the Beartooth Mountains, Northwest Sci. 41(3):110-117 (1967).
  • G. C. Varley, The concept of energy flow applied to a woodland community. In: Animal Populations in Relation to Their Food Resources, A. Watson, Ed. (Blackwell Scientific, Oxford, England, 1970), pp. 389-401, from p. 389.
  • J. Brown, Ecological investigations of the Tundra biome in the Prudhoe Bay Region, Alaska, Special Report, no. 2, Biol. Pap. Univ. Alaska (1975), from p. xiv.
  • J. Brown, The structure and function of the tundra ecosystem, U.S. Tundra Biome 1971 Progress Rept. 1 (1971).
  • König, C. and F. Weick, eds. 2008. Owls of the World. Second Edition. Christopher Helm, London.
  • König, C., F. Weick, and J.-H. Becking, eds. 1999. Owls : a guide to the owls of the world. Pica Press, Sussex, UK.
  • Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 16, 2011 at
  • Newton, I., R. Kavanagh, J. Olsen, and I. Taylor. 2002. Ecology and conservation of Owls. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Victoria, Australia.
  • WoRMS (2015). Strigiformes. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at


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