The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes. 2003. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada
  • König, C. and F. Weick, eds. 2008. Owls of the World. Second Edition. Christopher Helm, London.
  • König, C., F. Weick, and J.-H. Becking, eds. 1999. Owls : a guide to the owls of the world. Pica Press, Sussex, UK.
  • Newton, I., R. Kavanagh, J. Olsen, and I. Taylor. 2002. Ecology and conservation of Owls. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Victoria, Australia.
  • WoRMS (2015). Strigiformes. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at


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