The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Attenborough, D. 1995. The Private Life of Plants: A Natural History of Plant Behavior. London: BBC Books. 320 p.
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, and A. L. Gardner. 1987. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada. Resource Publication, no. 166. 79
  • Butler AJ, Rees T, Beesley P, Bax NJ. 2010. Marine Biodiversity in the Australian Region. PLoS ONE 5(8): e11831. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011831
  • Coll M, Piroddi C, Steenbeek J, Kaschner K, Ben Rais Lasram F, et al. 2010. The Biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea: Estimates, Patterns, and Threats. PLoS ONE 5(8): e11842. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011842
  • Corning WR; Beiwener AA. 1998. In vivo strains in pigeon flight feather shafts: implications for structural design. Journal of Experimental Biology. 201: 3057-3065.
  • D. C. Edwards, D. O. Conover, F. Sutter, Mobile predators and the structure of marine intertidal communities, Ecology 63(4):1175-1180, from p. 1178 (1982).
  • D. Riedel, Der Margheritensee (Sudabessinien) - Zugleich ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Abessinischen Graben-Seen, Arch. Hydrobiol. 58(4):435-466, from p. 457 (1962).
  • E. Holm and C. H. Scholtz, Structure and pattern of the Namib Desert dune ecosystem at Gobabeb, Madoqua 12(1):3-39, from p. 21 (1980).
  • E. Percival and H. Whitehead, 1929. A quantitative study of the fauna of some types of stream-bed. J. Ecol. 17:282-314, from p. 311 & overleaf.
  • F. B. van Es, A preliminary carbon budget for a part of the Ems estuary: The Dollard, Helgolander wiss. Meeresunters. 30:283-294, from p. 292 (1977).
  • Foy, Sally; Oxford Scientific Films. 1982. The Grand Design: Form and Colour in Animals. Lingfield, Surrey, U.K.: BLA Publishing Limited for J.M.Dent & Sons Ltd, Aldine House, London. 238 p.
  • Fujikura K, Lindsay D, Kitazato H, Nishida S, Shirayama. 2010. Marine Biodiversity in Japanese Waters. PLoS ONE 5(8): e11836. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011836
  • G. E. MacGinitie, Ecological aspects of a California marine estuary, Am. Midland Nat. 16(5):629-765, from p. 652 (1935).
  • Gill FB. 2007. Ornithology. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company. 758 p.
  • H. W. Koepcke and M. Koepcke, Sobre el proceso de transformacion de la materia organica en las playas arenosas marinas del Peru. Publ. Univ. Nac. Mayer San Marcos, Zoologie Serie A, No. 8, from p. 24 (1952).
  • Harun Yahya. 2002. Design in Nature. London: Ta-Ha Publishers Ltd. 180 p.
  • J. A. Kitching and F. J. Ebling, Ecological studies at Lough Ine, Adv. Ecol. Res. 4:197-291, from p. 288 (1967).
  • J. L. Harrison, The distribution of feeding habits among animals in a tropical rain forest, J. Anim. Ecol. 31:53-63, from p. 61 (1962).
  • J. W. Nybakken, Marine Biology: An Ecological Approach (Harper and Row, New York, 1982), from p. 242.
  • L. D. Harris and L. Paur, A quantitative food web analysis of a shortgrass community, Technical Report No. 154, Grassland Biome. U.S. International Biological Program (1972), from p. 17.
  • L. Saldanha, Estudio Ambiental do Estuario do Tejo, Publ. no. 5(4) (CNA/Tejo, Lisbon, 1980).
  • Lillywhite, H. B. 2006. Water relations of tetrapod integument. Journal of Experimental Biology. 209(2): 202-226.
  • Link J (2002) Does food web theory work for marine ecosystems? Mar Ecol Prog Ser 230:1–9
  • M. J. Burgis, I. G. Dunn, G. G. Ganf, L. M. McGowan and A. B. Viner, Lake George, Uganda: Studies on a tropical freshwater ecosystem. In: Productivity Problems of Freshwaters, Z. Kajak and A. Hillbricht-Ilkowska, Eds. (Polish Scientific, Warsaw, 1972), p
  • Miloslavich P, Díaz JM, Klein E, Alvarado JJ, Díaz C, et al. 2010. Marine Biodiversity in the Caribbean: Regional Estimates and Distribution Patterns. PLoS ONE 5(8): e11916. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011916
  • Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 16, 2011 at
  • N. A. Mackintosh, A survey of antarctic biology up to 1945. In: Biologie antarctique, R. Carrick, M. Holdgate, J. Prevost, Eds. (Hermann, Paris, 1964), pp. 3-38.
  • N. C. Collins, R. Mitchell and R. G. Wiegert, 1976. Functional analysis of a thermal spring ecosystem, with an evaluation of the role of consumers. Ecology 57:1221-1232, from p. 1222.
  • N. C. Collins, R. Mitchell and R. G. Wiegert, Functional analysis of a thermal spring ecosystem, with an evaluation of the role of consumers, Ecology 57:1221-1232, from p. 1222 (1976).
  • N. N. Smirnov, Food cycles in sphagnous bogs, Hydrobiologia 17:175-182, from p. 179 (1961).
  • Opitz S (1996) Trophic interactions in Caribbean coral reefs. ICLARM Tech Rep 43, Manila, Philippines
  • Polis GA (1991) Complex desert food webs: an empirical critique of food web theory. Am Nat 138:123–155
  • Steven Vogel. 2003. Comparative Biomechanics: Life's Physical World. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 580 p.
  • Symonds MRE; Tattersall GJ. 2010. Geographical variation in bill size across bird species provides evidence for Allen’s rule. The American Naturalist. 176(2): 188-97.
  • The University of Melbourne. 2010. Birds reduce their heating bills in cold climates. The Melbourne Newsroom [Internet],
  • Tributsch, H. 1984. How life learned to live. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. 218 p.
  • W. E. Odum and E. J. Heald, The detritus-based food web of an estuarine mangrove community, In Estuarine Research, Vol. 1, Chemistry, Biology and the Estuarine System, Academic Press, New York, pp. 265-286, from p. 281 (1975).
  • Wolpert, HD. February 2002. Photonic systems in nature can offer technical insights to designers of optical systems and detectors. Spie's Oemagazine. 26-29.
  • Y. Kitazawa, Ecosystem metabolism of the subalpine coniferous forest of the Shigayama IBP area. In: Ecosystem Analysis of the Subalpine Coniferous Forest of Shigayama IBP Area, Central Japan, Y. Kitazawa, Ed. (Japanese Committee for the International Biol
  • Yodzis P (2000) Diffuse effects in food webs. Ecology 81:261–266
  • [Anonymous] (2011). Living Dinosaurs: The Evolutionary History of Modern Birds. (Dyke G., Kaiser G., Ed.).


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