Articles on this page are available in 1 other language: Spanish (1) (learn more)

Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Western Ghats, Cultivated Native of Himalayas"
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Nomenclatural History

 

R. lancifotium Moench, Meth. 45 (1794), nomen illegit. R. speciosum Salisbury, Prodr. 287 (1796), nomen illegit. R. parviflorum Dumont de Courset, Bot. Cult. ed. 2,1: 253 (1811). No type designated. R. algarvense Page, Prodr. Southampt. Gard. 38 (1817), nomen nudum. R. baeticum Boissier & Reuter in Boissier, Diagn. Ser. 2,3: 118 (1856). Type: Spain, in montibus Baeticae australibus circa Algeciras et Tarife, Boissier & Reuter, n.v. ?R. adansonii Pepin, Ann. Fl. Pomone 304, t. (1859). R. ponticum L. var. brachycarpum Boissier, Fl. Or. 3: 972 (1875). Syntypes: Lebanon, Labillardiere; inter Zachle et Beckfaya, Boissier, in monte Sanin, Ehrhardt; in valle Hamama, Mart., n.v. R. ponticum L. subsp. baeticum (Boissier & Reuter) Handel-Mazzetti, Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien 23: 53 (1909).

 
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh

Source: Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

 

SPAIN, PORTUGAL, BULGARIA, N TURKEY, USSR (W Caucasia), LEBANON.

 
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh

Source: Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Tamil Nadu: Dindigul
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

Habit: Shrub/small tree
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

 

Shrub, 2-5(-8)m; young shoots glabrous. Leaves oblanceolate to broadly elliptic, 6-18 x 2.4-5.5cm, 1.8-5 x as long as broad, apex acute to acuminate, base ± rounded to cuneate, upper and lower surfaces glabrous when mature; petioles l-2cm, glabrous or with a few stipitate glands and a sparse floccose tomentum. Inflorescence 8-20-flowered; rhachis 10-50mm, glabrous or more rarely velutinous to ± lanate; pedicels 30-35mm, glabrous or stipitate-glandular. Calyx l-2mm, glabrous, lobes shallowly triangular. Corolla campanulate, lilac-pink to purple, usually with greenish-yellow flecks, 35-50mm. Ovary and style glabrous. Capsule 15-25 x 3-4mm.

 
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh

Source: Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

 

Forests, Rhododendron thickets

 
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh

Source: Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Associations

Foodplant / saprobe
amphigenous, erumpent perithecium of Chaetapiospora rhododendri is saprobic on dead leaf of Rhododendron ponticum
Remarks: season: 2-4

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Chalara dematiaceous anamorph of Chalara fungorum is saprobic on dead leaf of Rhododendron ponticum

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / parasite
mostly hypophyllous telium of Chrysomyxa ledi var. rhododendri parasitises live leaf of Rhododendron ponticum
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed pycnidium of Coleophoma coelomycetous anamorph of Coleophoma empetri is saprobic on dead leaf of Rhododendron ponticum
Remarks: season: 10-4

Foodplant / sap sucker
Dialeurodes chittendeni sucks sap of live leaf of Rhododendron ponticum

Foodplant / parasite
cleistothecium of Erysiphe azaleae parasitises live leaf of Rhododendron ponticum

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Ganoderma australe is saprobic on dead trunk of Rhododendron ponticum

Foodplant / spot causer
concentrically arranged acervulus of Gloeosporium coelomycetous anamorph of Glomerella cingulata causes spots on live leaf of Rhododendron ponticum
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / parasite
fruitbody of Grifola frondosa parasitises live root of Rhododendron ponticum

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hapalopilus nidulans is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Rhododendron ponticum
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hymenochaete cinnamomea is saprobic on dead, attached bark of Rhododendron ponticum
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
opening by slit pseudothecium of Lembosina aulographoides is saprobic on attached twig (bark) of Rhododendron ponticum
Remarks: season: 2-6
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
hypophyllous, subcuticular apothecium of Lophomerum ponticum is saprobic on dead, attached leaf of Rhododendron ponticum
Remarks: season: (9-)2(-3)

Foodplant / saprobe
pycnothyrium of Morenoina rhododendri is saprobic on dead twig of conidial anamorph of Rhododendron ponticum

Foodplant / spot causer
mostly immersed pseudothecium of Mycosphaerella rhododendri causes spots on live leaf of Rhododendron ponticum
Remarks: season: 5

Foodplant / parasite
Oidium ericinum parasitises Rhododendron ponticum

Foodplant / saprobe
mostly epiphyllous acervulus of Pestalotiopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Pestalotiopsis sydowiana is saprobic on dead leaf of Rhododendron ponticum
Remarks: season: 8-9

Plant / epiphyte
epiphyllous thallus of Phycopeltis arundinacea grows on live leaf of Rhododendron ponticum

Plant / epiphyte
epiphyllous thallus of Phycopeltis epiphyton grows on live leaf of Rhododendron ponticum

Foodplant / spot causer
scattered or gregarious, erumpent pycnidium of Phyllosticta coelomycetous anamorph of Phyllosticta berolinensis causes spots on live leaf of Rhododendron ponticum
Remarks: season: 5

Foodplant / visitor
adult of Physocephala nigra visits for nectar and/or pollen flower of Rhododendron ponticum

Foodplant / pathogen
Phytophthora inflata infects and damages Rhododendron ponticum

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed perithecium of Pseudomassaria thistletonia is saprobic on dead leaf of Rhododendron ponticum
Remarks: season: 2-3

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Pterygosporopsis dematiaceous anamorph of Pterygosporopsis rhododendri is saprobic on dead leaf of Rhododendron ponticum

Foodplant / spot causer
epiphyllous, punctiform, aggregated or circinate pycnidium of Septoria coelomycetous anamorph of Septoria rhododendri causes spots on leaf of Rhododendron ponticum
Remarks: season: 5

Foodplant / sap sucker
nymph of Stephanitis rhododendri sucks sap of Rhododendron ponticum
Other: major host/prey

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Rhododendron ponticum

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Rhododendron ponticum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Rhododendron ponticum

Rhododendron ponticum, called common rhododendron or pontic rhododendron, is a species of Rhododendron native to southern Europe and southwest Asia.

Description[edit]

R. ponticum is a dense, suckering shrub or small tree growing to 5 m (16 ft) tall, rarely 8 m (26 ft). The leaves are evergreen, 6 to 18 cm (2.4 to 7.1 in) long and 2 to 5 cm (0.79 to 1.97 in) wide. The flowers are 3.5 to 5 cm (1.4 to 2.0 in) in diameter, violet-purple, often with small greenish-yellow spots or streaks. The fruit is a dry capsule 1.5 to 2.5 cm (0.59 to 0.98 in) long, containing numerous small seeds.

The two subspecies are:

  • R. p. ponticum, found from Bulgaria east to Georgia
  • R. p. baeticum (Boiss. & Reut.) Hand.-Mazz. found in Spain and Portugal

Distribution and habitat[edit]

In Europe, its range includes Spain, northern Portugal, Great Britain, Ireland and southeast Bulgaria, which is the last surviving European Tertiary habitat.

In Asia it occurs in Turkey, Lebanon, Georgia, the Krasnodar area of southern Russia, the Himalayas, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Northern Pakistan, and parts of Jammu and Kashmir into the northern Republic of India (Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand). It is the state flower of Jammu and Kashmir.

Though it had been present in Great Britain before the last Ice Age, it did not recolonise afterwards and the ecology of the island grew up without it. Its presence today is due to humans introducing it, and it easily naturalises and becomes a pest in some situations, often covering whole hillsides (especially in Snowdonia and the western British Isles). In the British Isles, it colonises moorlands, uplands, shady woodlands (alongside escaped laurels and the native holly) and in areas of acid soils, often in shaded areas.

Historical range[edit]

Fossil evidence shows it had a much wider range across most of southern and western Europe before the Late Glacial Maximum, or until about 20,000 years ago.

It was noted by the botanist Joseph Pitton de Tournefort during his travels in the Near East in 1700–02, and so received its name from Linnaeus to identify the ancient kingdom on the south shores of the Black Sea, Pontus, in which it grew. At the other end of its range, in southern Spain, Linnaeus' friend and correspondent Clas Alströmer found it growing with oleander. It was introduced to Britain as an ornamental shrub in 1763, where it is now considered by some to be an invasive species.[1]

Cultivation and uses[edit]

Rhododendron ponticum subsp. baeticum is one of the most extensively cultivated rhododendrons in western Europe. It is used as an ornamental plant in its own right, and more frequently as a rootstock onto which other more attractive rhododendrons are grafted. The plants were first grown in Britain in the 1760s, supplied by Conrad Loddiges, and became widely distributed through the commercial nursery trade in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. The roots readily send up suckers from below the graft, often allowing it to overtake the intended grafted rhododendron.

Honey produced with pollen from the flowers of this plant can be quite poisonous, causing severe hypotension and bradycardia in humans if consumed in sufficient quantities, due to toxic diterpenes (grayanotoxins).[2]

Invasive species[edit]

Suckering of the root, together with its abundant seed production, has led to it becoming an invasive species over much of western Europe and in parts of New Zealand. Rhododendron control is a key element in nature conservation in those areas.[3] Conservation organisations in Britain now believe R. ponticum has become "a severe problem" in the native Atlantic oakwoods of the west highlands of Scotland and in Wales, and on heathlands in southern England, crowding out the native flora.[4] Clearance strategies have been developed, including the flailing and cutting down of plants with follow-up herbicide spraying. Injection of herbicide into individual plants has been found to be more precise and effective.[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Alice M. Coats, Garden Shrubs and Their Histories (1964) 1992, s.v. "Rhododendron".
  2. ^ Hayes, Andrew Wallace (2007). Principles and methods of toxicology. CRC Press. p. 998. ISBN 978-0-8493-3778-9. 
  3. ^ "New flora and fauna for old". The Economist. 2000-12-21. Retrieved 2008-12-14. [dead link]
  4. ^ "Rhododendron: A killer of the Countryside". Offwell Woodland & Wildlife Trust. 2004. Retrieved 30 May 2010. 
  5. ^ "BREAKTHROUGH IN BATTLE AGAINST PROBLEM PONTICUM". Forestry Commission. 30 JULY 2004. Retrieved 30 May 2010. 
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!