Overview

Distribution

Distribution: global (mostly tropical) from 70° N to about 60° S. Chiefly marine coastal and schooling fishes; some freshwater and anadromous. Body usually fusiform, round to strongly compressed. Head without scales; jaw teeth, when present, are small or minute. A single dorsal fin, small and near midpoint of body; pelvic fins more or less below dorsal fin base; dorsal and pelvic fins absent in some species; soft rays only. Lateral line spanning a few scales behind the head in some species, missing in others; scales cycloid (smooth to touch); abdominal scutes usually present (a single pelvic scute in the Dussumieriinae). Branchiostegal rays usually 5-10. Most feed on small planktonic animals. Size range (adults): from 2 to 75 cm. One of the most important family of commercial fishes, processed for food, oil, or fish meal.
  • MASDEA (1997).
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Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Ecology

Associations

Known predators

Clupeidae (pilchard) is prey of:
Dicentrarchus labrax
Aves
Merluccius
Cephalopoda
Scombridae
Thyrsites atun
Argyrosomus hololepoditus
Seriola
Atractoscion aequidens
Cetacea
Phocidae
Chondrichthyes

Based on studies in:
Portugal (Estuarine)
South Africa, Southwest coast (Marine)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • L. Saldanha, Estudio Ambiental do Estuario do Tejo, Publ. no. 5(4) (CNA/Tejo, Lisbon, 1980).
  • Yodzis P (2000) Diffuse effects in food webs. Ecology 81:261–266
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Source: SPIRE

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Known prey organisms

Clupeidae (pilchard) preys on:
zooplankton
Mysidacea
Copepoda
phytoplankton
mesozooplankton
macrozooplankton

Based on studies in:
Arctic (Marine)
Portugal (Estuarine)
South Africa, Southwest coast (Marine)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • M. J. Dunbar, Arctic and subarctic marine ecology: immediate problems, Arctic 7:213-228, from p. 223 (1954).
  • L. Saldanha, Estudio Ambiental do Estuario do Tejo, Publ. no. 5(4) (CNA/Tejo, Lisbon, 1980).
  • Yodzis P (2000) Diffuse effects in food webs. Ecology 81:261–266
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Source: SPIRE

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records: 2520
Specimens with Sequences: 2299
Specimens with Barcodes: 1614
Species: 131
Species With Barcodes: 127
Public Records: 1314
Public Species: 99
Public BINs: 77
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data

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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Wikipedia

Clupeidae

The Clupeidae are the family of the herrings, shads, sardines, hilsa, and menhadens. It includes many of the most important food fishes in the world.

Description and biology[edit]

Clupeids are mostly marine forage fish, although a few species are found in fresh water. No species has scales on the head, and some are entirely scaleless. The lateral line is short or absent, and the teeth are unusually small where they are present at all. Clupeids typically feed on plankton, and range from 2 to 75 cm (0.8 to 30 in.) in length.[1]

Clupeids spawn huge numbers of eggs (up to 200,000 in some species) near the surface of the water. After hatching, the larvae live among the plankton until they develop a swim bladder and transform into adults. The adults typically live in large shoals.[2]

Commercial species[edit]

Important commercial species include:

Genera[edit]

See also[edit]

List of fish families

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2008). "Clupeidae" in FishBase. December 2008 version.
  2. ^ Nelson, Gareth (1998). Paxton, J.R. & Eschmeyer, W.N., ed. Encyclopedia of Fishes. San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 91–92. ISBN 0-12-547665-5. 
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