Articles on this page are available in 1 other language: Spanish (1) (learn more)

Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Western Ghats, Dry Deciduous Forests"
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

"Maharashtra: Kolhapur, Nasik, Pune, Ratnagiri, Thane"
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution: Said to be a native of America. Cosmopolitan in Tropics, often planted in W. Pakistan.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Pantropics, a native of tropical America.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

Perennial, Trees, Shrubs, Woody throughout, Nodules present, Stems erect or ascending, Stems greater than 2 m tall, Trunk or stems armed with thorns, spines or prickles, Stems solid, Stems or young t wigs glabrous or sparsely glabrate, Stems or young twigs sparsely to densely hairy, Leaves alternate, Leaves petiolate, Extrafloral nectary glands on petiole, Stipules conspicuous, Stipules persistent, Stipules free, Stipules spinose or bristles, Leaves compound, Leaves even pinnate, Leaves bipinnate, Leaf or leaflet margins entire, Leaflets opposite, Leaflets 10-many, Leaves glabrous or nearly so, Inflorescences globose heads, capitate or subcapitate, Inflorescence axillary, Bracts very small, absent or caducous, Flowers actinomorphic or somewhat irregular, Calyx 5-lobed, Calyx glabrous, Petals united, valvate, Petals white, Stamens numerous, more than 10, Stamens completely free, separate, Stamens long exserted, Filaments glabrous, Style terete, Fruit a legume, Fruit unilocular, Fruit tardily or weakly dehiscent, Fruit indehiscent, Fruit elongate, straight, Fruit oblong or ellipsoidal, Fruit coriaceous or becoming woody, Fruit exserted from calyx, Fruit inflated or turgid, Fruit glabrous or glabrate, Fruit 3-10 seeded, Seeds embedded in gummy or spongy pulp, Seed with elliptical line or depression, pleurogram, Seeds ovoid to rounded in outline, Seed surface smooth, Seeds olive, brown, or black.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

Dr. David Bogler

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

A shrub or small tree, branches slightly zigzag, marked with grey or pale brown dots, young twigs glabrescent. Spines stipular, in pairs, straight, c. 7-18 mm long. Rachis 1.2-5.5 cm long, pilose, petiole usually with a small gland, about the middle. Pinnae 2-8 pairs, c.1.2-2.5 cm long, leaflets 10-20 pairs, sessile, c.2.5-5.5 mm long, 1.0-1.5 mm wide, linear, oblong, acute, base oblique, glabrous to subglabrous. Inflorescence globose pedunculate heads in axillary fascicles, peduncle c. 1.2-2.5 cm long, slender, pubescent; bracts whorled, at or near the apex of the peduncle. Calyx c. 1.5-1.8 mm long, campanulate. Corolla c. 2.5 mm long. Pod 4.5-7.5 cm long, c. 1.2 cm broad slightly curved, dark brown, mesocarp pulpy. Seeds numerous, biseriate.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Elevation Range

200-1100 m
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

Habit: Shrub
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Type Information

Isotype for Pithecellobium acuminatum M.E. Jones
Catalog Number: US 1635693
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): M. E. Jones
Year Collected: 1930
Locality: Above Primiera Agua, near Loreto., Baja California Sur, Mexico, North America
  • Isotype: Jones, M. E. 1933. Contr. W. Bot. 18: 38.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flower/Fruit

Fl. Per. November-March.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Vachellia farnesiana

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Vachellia farnesiana

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 19
Specimens with Barcodes: 19
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Acacia farnesiana

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Reasons: Widely distributed in tropical America and spread by cultivation and naturalization. In thickets and forests in the dry coastal and dry limestone regions of Puerto Rico.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Biological Research Needs: Native or exotic status in the United States is unclear. According to Scurlock (1987), Acacia farnesiana is native to Florida, the West Indies, and Mexico. It is cultivated for perfume in Europe. Adams (1972) writes that this species is native to the Old World, now widespread in tropical and subtropical parts of both hemispheres. According to Little and Wadsworth (1964), this tree is widely distributed in tropical America and spread by cultivation and naturalization; naturalized in southeastern United States (FL to LA); also naturalized in Old World Tropics. -N. Benton (TNC-HO, 11/96)

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Vachellia farnesiana

Vachellia farnesiana, also known as Acacia farnesiana, and previously Mimosa farnesiana, commonly known as needle bush, is so named because of the numerous thorns distributed along its branches. The native range of V. farnesiana is uncertain. While the point of origin is Mexico and Central America, the species has a pantropical distribution incorporating northern Australia and southern Asia. It remains unclear whether the extra-American distribution is primarily natural or anthropogenic.[1] It is deciduous over part of its range,[2] but evergreen in most locales.[3] The species grows to a height of up to 8 m (26 ft)[4] and has a lifespan of about 25–50 years.[5]

The plant has been recently[when?] spread to many new locations as a result of human activity and it is considered a serious weed in Fiji, where locals call it Ellington's curse. It thrives in dry, saline, or sodic soils. It is also a serious pest plant in parts of Australia, including north-west New South Wales, where it now infests thousands of acres of grazing country.[6]

The taxon name farnesiana is specially named after Odoardo Farnese (1573–1626) of the notable Italian Farnese family which, after 1550, under the patronage of cardinal Alessandro Farnese, maintained some of the first private European botanical gardens in Rome, in the 16th and 17th centuries. Under stewardship of these Farnese Gardens this acacia was imported to Italy.[7] The plant itself was brought to the Farnese Gardens from the Caribbean and Central America, where it originates.[8][9] Analysis of essences of the floral extract from this plant, long used in perfumery, resulted in the name for the sesquiterpene biosynthetic chemical farnesol, found as a basic sterol precursor in plants, and cholesterol precursor in animals.[8]

Some of the reported uses of the plant[edit]

Bark and Thorns of Vachellia farnesiana

Bark[edit]

The bark is used for its tannin content.[4] Highly tannic barks are common in general to acacias, extracts of many being are used in medicine for this reason. (See cutch).

Food[edit]

The leaves are used as a tamarind flavoring for chutneys and the pods are roasted to be used in sweet and sour dishes.[10]

Flowers[edit]

The flowers are processed through distillation to produce a perfume called Cassie. It is widely used in the perfume industry in Europe. Flowers of the plant provide the perfume essence from which the biologically important sesquiterpenoid farnesol is named.

Scented ointments from Cassie are made in India.[4]

Vachellia farnesiana (L.) Willd. - sweet acacia seeds

Foliage[edit]

The foliage is a significant source of forage in much of its range, with a protein content around 18%.

Seed pods[edit]

The concentration of tannin in the seed pods is about 23%.

Seeds[edit]

The seeds of V. farnesiana are not toxic to humans[11] and are a valuable food source for people throughout the plant's range. The ripe seeds are put through a press to make oil for cooking.[12] Nonetheless, an anecdotal report has been made that in Brazil some people use the seeds of V. farnesiana to eliminate rabid dogs.[4] This is attributed to an unnamed toxic alkaloid.

Forage[edit]

The tree makes good forage for bees.[13]

Dyes and inks[edit]

A black pigment is extracted from the bark and fruit.[13]

Traditional medicine[edit]

The bark and the flowers are the parts of the tree most used in traditional medicine.[12] V. farnesiana has been used in Colombia to treat malaria, and the extract from the tree bark and leaves has shown some efficacy against the malarial pathogen Plasmodium falciparum in animal models .[14] Indigenous Australians have used the roots and bark of the tree to treat diarrhea and diseases of the skin.[13] The tree's leaves can also be rubbed on the skin to treat skin diseases.[15][unreliable source?][medical citation needed]

Common names[edit]

Farnese wattle, dead finish, mimosa wattle, mimosa bush, prickly mimosa bush, prickly Moses, needle bush, north-west curara, sheep's briar, sponge wattle, sweet acacia, thorny acacia, thorny feather wattle, wild briar, huisache, cassie, cascalotte, cassic, mealy wattle, popinac, sweet briar, Texas huisache, aroma, (Bahamas) cashia, (Bahamas, USA) opoponax, sashaw, (Belize) suntich, (Jamaica) sassie-flower, iron wood, cassie flower, honey-ball, casha tree, casha, (Virgin Islands) cassia, (Fiji) Ellington's curse, cushuh, (St. Maarten), huizache (Mexico).

References[edit]

  1. ^ Clarke, H.D., Seigler, D.S., Ebinger, J.E. 1989; 'Acacia farnesiana (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae) and Related Species from Mexico, the Southwestern U.S., and the Caribbean' Systematic Botany 14 549-564
  2. ^ PDF Ursula K. Schuch and Margaret Norem, Growth of Legume Tree Species Growing in the Southwestern United States, University of Arizona.
  3. ^ "Discover Life - Fabaceae: Acacia farnesiana (L. ) Willd. - Cassie Flower, Vachellia farnesiana, Poponax farnesiana, Mimosa farnesiana, Ellington Curse, Klu, Sweet Acacia, Mimosa Bush, Huisache". Pick5.pick.uga.edu. Retrieved 2012-04-19. 
  4. ^ a b c d "Purdue University". Hort.purdue.edu. 1997-12-16. Retrieved 2012-04-19. 
  5. ^ "Acacia salicina Lindley". Worldwidewattle.com. Retrieved 2013-10-24. 
  6. ^ "Mimosa bush - briar bush". Northwestweeds.nsw.gov.au. Retrieved 2008-04-09. 
  7. ^ "Etymology of farnesol, accessed August 27, 2009". Dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved 2012-04-19. 
  8. ^ a b "HENRY TRIMBLE AND F. D. MACFARLAND., AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY, Volume 57, #3, March, 1885" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-04-19. 
  9. ^ "Location of the Farnese family gardens, now known only as a remnant". Gardenvisit.com. Retrieved 2012-04-19. 
  10. ^ "One-garden" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-04-19. 
  11. ^ [1][dead link]
  12. ^ a b "Herbal remedy". Mhra.gov.uk. Retrieved 2013-10-24. 
  13. ^ a b c "Bottlebrush Press". Bottlebrush Press. 2003-05-20. Retrieved 2012-04-19. 
  14. ^ Garavito, G.; Rincón, J.; Arteaga, L.; Hata, Y.; Bourdy, G.; Gimenez, A.; Pinzón, R.; Deharo, E. (2006). "Antimalarial activity of some Colombian medicinal plants". Journal of Ethnopharmacology 107 (3): 460–462. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2006.03.033. PMID 16713157.  edit
  15. ^ "Philippine Herbs Used in Small Animal Practice". Stuartxchange.org. Retrieved 2012-04-19. 
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Notes

Comments

The plant yields high class gum and the flowers are used for perfume in South Europe but none of these products are exploited in W. Pakistan. The bark and seeds are used for tanning. The plant makes good fence.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Kartesz's 1999 Synthesis includes Acacia minuta (and formerly recognized subspecies) in A. farnesiana; they had been recognized as distinct in his 1994 checklist.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!