The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Bamfield Marine Sciences Centre, 2004. "Porifera" (On-line). Ocean Link. Accessed January 13, 2005 at
  • Barnes, R. 1987. Invertebrate Zoology. Orlando, Florida: Dryden Press.
  • Bowerbank, J.S. 1862a. On the Anatomy and Physiology of the Spongiadae. Part II. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 152(2): 747-829, pls XXVII-XXXV. External link.
  • Brusca, R., G. Brusca. 2003. Invertebrates. Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates, Inc..
  • Dohrmann, M., O. Voigt, D. Erpenbeck and G. Wörheide. 2006. Non-monophyly of most supraspecific taxa of calcareous sponges (Porifera, Calcarea) revealed by increased taxon sampling and partitioned Bayesian analysis of ribosomal DNA. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40(3):830-843.
  • Fujikura K, Lindsay D, Kitazato H, Nishida S, Shirayama. 2010. Marine Biodiversity in Japanese Waters. PLoS ONE 5(8): e11836. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011836
  • Hooper, John N. A., and Rob W. M. van Soest, eds. 2002. Systema Porifera: A Guide to the Classification of Sponges. xlviii + 1708
  • Isotype: Tilden, J. E. 1896. Am. Alg. (Exsic.). 2: no. 142.
  • Koziol, C., S. P. Leys, I. M. Müller, and W. E. G. Müller. 1997. Cloning of Hsp70 genes from the marine sponges Sycon raphanus (Calcarea) and Rhabdocalyptus dawsoni (Hexactinellida). An approach to solve the phylogeny of sponges . Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 62:581-592.
  • Manuel, M., C. Borchiellini, E. Alivon, Y. Le Parco, J. Vacelet, and N. Boury-Esnault. 2003. Phylogeny and evolution of calcareous sponges: monophyly of calcinea and Calcaronea, high levels of morphological homoplasy, and the primitive nature of axial symmetry. Systematic Biology 52:311-333.
  • Wörheide, G. 2002. "Calcarea Introduction" (On-line). Gert Wörheide's homepage about geobiology. Accessed January 13, 2005 at
  • van Soest, R. (2012). Calcarea. In: Van Soest, R.W.M; Boury-Esnault, N.; Hooper, J.N.A.; Rützler, K.; de Voogd, N.J.; Alvarez de Glasby, B.; Hajdu, E.; Pisera, A.B.; Manconi, R.; Schoenberg, C.; Klautau, M.; Picton, B.; Kelly, M.; Vacelet, J.; Dohrmann, M.; Díaz, M.-C.; Cárdenas, P.; Carballo, J. L. (2016). World Porifera database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at


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