Molecular Biology and Genetics
Statistics of barcoding coverage
Specimens with Sequences:36
Specimens with Barcodes:32
Species With Barcodes:22
Black corals (Antipatharia) are a group of deep water, tree-like corals related to sea anemones which normally occur in the tropics although they are also found in shallow water non-tropical areas such as Milford Sound in New Zealand where they can be seen in an underwater observatory. There are about 230 known species of Antipatharians in 42 genera.
Though black coral's living tissue is brilliantly colored, it takes its name from the distinctive black or dark brown color of its skeleton. Also unique to black coral are the tiny spines that cover the surface of the skeleton, the origin of the nickname little thorn coral. In the Hawaiian language, black coral is called ‘ēkaha kū moana and is the official state gem of Hawaii. Black coral is listed in Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES).
In March 2009, scientists released the results of their research on deep-sea (depths of ~300 to 3,000 m) corals throughout the world. They discovered a subdivision of Black Coral, Leiopathes sp. specimens, to be among the oldest continuously living organisms on the planet; around 4,265 years old. They show that the "radial growth rates are as low as 4 to 35 micrometers per year and that individual colony longevities are on the order of thousands of years".
- ^ Tazioli, S., Bo, M., Boyer, M., Rotinsulu, H. & Bavestrello, G., 2007. Ecology of some common antipatharians from the Marine Park of Bunaken (North Sulawesi, Indonesia). Zoological Studies, 46, 227–241
- ^ Roark EB, Guilderson TP, Dunbar RB, Fallon SJ, Mucciarone DA (2009-02-10). "Extreme longevity in proteinaceous deep-sea corals". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 10.1073/pnas.0810875106 (13): 5204–8. doi:10.1073/pnas.0810875106. PMID 19307564. PMC 2663997. http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2009/03/20/0810875106.abstract.
- ^ Graczyk, Michael (2009-03-25). "Scientists ID living coral as 4,265 years old". The Associated Press. http://www.chron.com/disp/story.mpl/ap/tx/6341406.html.
- Allopathes Opresko & Cairns, 1994
- Antipathes Pallas, 1766
- Cirrhipathes de Blainville, 1830
- Pseudocirripathes Bo et al., 2009
- Pteropathes Brook, 1889
- Stichopathes Brook, 1889
- WoRMS (2012). "Antipathidae". World Register of Marine Species. http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=103301. Retrieved 2012-03-18.
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