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Deconica

Deconica is a genus of mushrooms in the family Strophariaceae. It was formerly considered synonymous with Psilocybe until molecular studies showed that genus to be polyphyletic, made of two major clades: one containing bluing, hallucinogenic species, the other non-bluing and non-hallucinogenic species. Deconica contains species formerly classified in the sections Deconica and Coprophila of Psilocybe.[2]

Taxonomy[edit]

Until recently, Deconica was generally considered to be synonymous with Psilocybe, and was originally named as a subgenus of Agaricus by Worthington George Smith in 1870.[1] It was later raised to generic level by Petter Karsten in 1879.[3] However, several molecular studies published in the 2000s demonstrated that Psilocybe, as it was defined then, was polyphyletic.[4][5][6] The studies supported the idea of dividing the genus into two clades, one consisting of the bluing, hallucinogenic species, and the other made of the non-bluing, non-hallucinogenic species. However, the generally accepted lectotype (a specimen later selected when the original author of a taxon name did not designate a type) of the genus as a whole was Psilocybe montana, a non-hallucinogenic species; if those forms of the species in the study were to be segregated, it would leave the hallucinogenic clade without a valid name. To resolve this taxonomical dilemma, it was proposed in 2005 to conserve the name Psilocybe, with P. semilanceata as the type, leaving the option to use Deconica as the name for the non-hallucinogenic clade.[7] The proposal was accepted unanimously by the Nomenclature Committee for Fungi in 2009.[8]

Deconia had previously been recognized as a separate genus by several authors, including Rolf Singer in 1951,[9] Dennis and Orton in 1960,[10] and Horak in 1979.[11]

Species[edit]

Many species in Deconica were transferred there by mycologist Machiel Noordeloos in a 2009 publication.[12]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Deconica (W.G. Sm.) P. Karst. 1879". MycoBank. International Mycological Association. Retrieved 2010-11-23. 
  2. ^ Noordeloos M. "Deconica pages". www.entoloma.eu. 
  3. ^ "Rysslands, Finlands och den Skandinaviska halföns Hattsvampar. Förra Delen: Skifsvampar". Bidrag till Kännedom of Finlands Natur Folk 32 (26): 515. 
  4. ^ Moncalvo JM, Vilgalys R, Redhead SA, et al. (2002). "One hundred and seventeen clades of euagarics". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 23 (3): 357–400. doi:10.1016/S1055-7903(02)00027-1. PMID 12099793. 
  5. ^ Nugent KG, Saville BJ. (2004). "Forensic analysis of hallucinogenic fungi: a DNA-based approach". Forensic Science International 140 (2–3): 147–57. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2003.11.022. PMID 15036436. 
  6. ^ Matheny PB, Curtis JM, Hofstetter V, et al. (2006). "Major clades of Agaricales: a multilocus phylogenetic overview" (PDF). Mycologia 98 (6): 982–95. doi:10.3852/mycologia.98.6.982. PMID 17486974. 
  7. ^ Redhead SA, Moncalvo J-M, Vilgalys R, Matheny PB, Guzmán-Dávalos L, Guzmán G. (2005). "(1757) Proposal to conserve the name Psilocybe (Basidiomycota) with a conserved type" (PDF). Taxon 56 (1): 255–57. 
  8. ^ Norvell L. (2009). "Report of the Nomenclature Committee for Fungi: 15" (PDF). Mycotaxon 110: 487–92. doi:10.5248/110.487. 
  9. ^ Lilloa 22: 504. 1951
  10. ^ Dennis RWG, Orton PD, Hora FB. (1960). "New check list of British agarics and boleti. Parts I, II, III, and IV". Transactions of the British Mycological Society 43 (2): 159–439, 440–59. 
  11. ^ Flora Criptog. Tierra del Fuego 11(6): 243. 1979
  12. ^ "The genus Deconica (W. G. SM.) P. KARST. in Europe – new combinations" (PDF). Österreichische Zeitschrift für Pilzkunde 18: 207–10. 2009. 
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