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Pseudocolus fusiformis

Pseudocolus fusiformis
View the Mycomorphbox template that generates the following list
Mycological characteristics
glebal hymenium
no distinct cap
hymenium attachment is irregular or not applicable
lacks a stipe
spore print is olive-brown
ecology is saprotrophic
edibility: inedible

Pseudocolus fusiformis is a stinkhorn mushroom in the Phallaceae family, a family well known for a remarkable range of fruit body types.[1] It is the most widely distributed member of the genus Pseudocolus and has been found in the United States, Australia, Japan, Java, and the Philippines. It is commonly known as the stinky squid,[2] because of its fetid odor, and its three or four upright "arms" which are connected at the top. The malodorous smell comes from the dark greenish slimy gleba covering the inside faces of the arms, and attracts insects that help to disperse the spores.

Taxonomy[edit source | edit]

The first appearance of this species in the literature was in 1890, under the name Colus fusiformis, when Eduard Fischer wrote a description based on a painting he found in the Paris Museum of Natural History.[3] In his 1944 monograph on the Gasteromycetes of Australia and New Zealand, Gordon Herriot Cunningham considered this naming to be a nomen nudum—not published with an adequate description.[4] However, it was valid under the rules of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature. In 1899 Penzig described the species Colus javanicus based on a single specimen found on Java,[5] and a year later Fischer amended the name of his original Colus fusiformis to Colus javanicus, as he was not satisfied with the quality of his original description.[6] Despite his doubts on the validity of his description, his original naming is both legitimate and has priority over C. javanicus.[7]

In 1907, Curtis Gates Lloyd described the new genus Pseudocolus, and reduced several species to synonyms of Pseudocolus fusiformis.[8] The first North American description of this species (as Colus schellenbergiae) was in 1916 by Sumstine;[9] Johnson later (1929) transferred this to Pseudocollus schellenbergiae.[10] Although Cunningham (1931) revised the genus Anthurus to include members of Pseudocolus,[11] Dring in 1973 considered the genera to be distinct.[12] Up until the appearance of an extensive study published in 1980, 13 different binomials had been used in the literature to name the species.[13]

Description[edit source | edit]

Immature fruiting bodies resemble egg- or pear-shaped puffballs, grayish-brown to pale gray in color, with dimensions of 0.5 to 2.5 centimetres (0.20 to 0.98 in) diameter; the top surface is broken into small regions by cracks or crevices (areolate).[7] As the fungus matures, the fruiting body cracks open and forms a stalk with tapering arms, a volva, and a spore mass known as a gleba.

Mature fruiting bodies and bisected immature "egg" of P. fusiformis

The mature fruiting body is typically 3 to 6 centimetres (1.2 to 2.4 in) in height, with arms that are 2–5 times the length of the stipe. The stipe itself does not extend past the volva, and is hollow, thin-walled, chambered, wrinkled, and flares towards the upper end. The color of the stipe is white or grayish-white; it is 1 to 3.5 centimetres (0.39 to 1.4 in) in height, and 0.5 to 2.5 centimetres (0.20 to 0.98 in) thick at the widest diameter.[7] The 3 or four arms extending from the stipe average 3.6 centimetres (1.4 in) in length (ranging from 1 to 13 centimetres (0.39 to 5.1 in),[13] and wrinkled on the side bearing the gleba. The arms, which are joined at the top, are shaped like a lance (lanceolate), pointed towards the apex; they are orange-colored. The internal structure of the arms is made of chambers; one large chamber towards the outside, and typically three smaller chambers on the inside of the arm. The gleba is commonly found on the upper two-thirds of the inside surface of the arms, and is dark green and slimy. The fetid odor of the gleba, described by one author as comparable to "fresh pig manure",[14] attracts insects that help to disperse the spores.

The spores are elliptical or ovoid, smooth, translucent (hyaline), with dimensions of 4.5–5.5 by 2–2.5 µm.[15] The basidia, the spore-bearing cells, are attached to 6–8 sessile spores.[7]

Edibility[edit source | edit]

Although not considered poisonous, P. fusiformis is not recommended for consumption.[16] Some related species such as Phallus impudicus or Mutinus caninus are considered to be edible (or even delicacies) in the immature egg stage;[17] however, the foul smell of stinkhorns at maturity would likely deter most individuals from eating them.

Similar species[edit source | edit]

The stinkhorn species Clathrus columnatus somewhat resembles P. fusiformis in that it has 3 or 4 arms that extend upwards and join at the top. However, unlike C. columnatus, the arms of P. fusiformis share a common stem, and the immature egg-form is gray or grayish brown, rather than white.[18]

Habitat and distribution[edit source | edit]

This species grows scattered or in groups on disturbed soil in coniferous or mixed forests. It is also found growing on wood chips used as mulch in gardens or for landscaping;[15] Blanton has also reported it growing in a garden "solitary and very large".[13]

Pseudocolus fusiformis has been collected from a variety of locations worldwide, including Australia, Japan, Java, the Philippines, Reunion Island, the United States,[7] and Turkey.[19] In the continental United States, it was first collected in Pittsburgh in 1915,;[2] since then it has been found in Alabama, Connecticut, Georgia,(South Carolina) Louisiana, Florida, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, and Tennessee; it has also been found in Hawaii.[20] It is thought to have been introduced to North America from southeast Asia.[21]

References[edit source | edit]

  1. ^ Cannon PF, Kirk PM. (2007). Fungal Families of the World. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. p. 271. ISBN 0-85199-827-5. 
  2. ^ a b Meyers R. (March 2004). "Pseudocolus fusiformis". MushroomExpert.Com. Retrieved 2011-07-11. 
  3. ^ Fischer E. (1890). "Untersuchungen zur vergleichenden Entwicklungsgeschichte und Systematik der Phalloideen. I". Neue Denkschriften der allgemeinen Schweizerischen Gesellschaft für die gesammten Naturwissenschaften (in German) 32: 1–103. 
  4. ^ Cunningham GH. (1944). The Gasteromycetes of Australia and New Zealand. Dunedin, New Zealand. 
  5. ^ Penzig O. (1899). "Über javanische Phalloideen". Annales du Jardin Botanique de Buitenzorg (in German) 16: 133–73. 
  6. ^ Fischer E. (1900). "Untersuchungen zur vergleichenden Entwicklungsgeschichte und Systematik der Phalloideen. III". Neue Denkschriften der allgemeinen Schweizerischen Gesellschaft für die gesammten Naturwissenschaften (in German) 36: 1–84. 
  7. ^ a b c d e Blanton RL. (1976). "Pseudocolus fusiformis, new to North Carolina". Mycologia 68 (6): 1235–9. doi:10.2307/3758756. JSTOR 3758756. 
  8. ^ Lloyd CG. (1907). "Concerning the phalloides". Mycological Notes 28: 349–64. 
  9. ^ Sumstine DR. (1916). "A new species of Colus from Pennsylvania". Mycologia 8 (3): 183–4. 
  10. ^ Johnson MM. (1929). "The Gasteromycetae of Ohio". Ohio Biological Survey Bulletin. 22 4 (7): 273–352. 
  11. ^ Cunningham GH. (1931). "The Gasteromycetes of Australia. XI. The Phallales, part II". Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 56: 182–200. 
  12. ^ Dring DM. (1973). "Gasteromycetes". In Ainsworth GC, Sparrow FK, Sussman AS. The Fungi; an Advanced Treatise IVB. London, UK: Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-045604-4. 
  13. ^ a b c Blanton RL, Burk WR. (1980). "Notes on Pseudocolus fusiformis". Mycotaxon 12 (1): 225–34. 
  14. ^ Hemmes DE, Desjardin D. (2002). Mushrooms of Hawai'i: An Identification Guide. Berkeley, California: Ten Speed Press. p. 40. ISBN 1-58008-339-0. 
  15. ^ a b Bessette A. (1995). Mushrooms of North America in Color: a Field Guide Companion to Seldom-illustrated Fungi. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press. pp. 140–1. ISBN 0-8156-0323-1. 
  16. ^ McKnight VB, McKnight KH. (1987). A Field Guide to Mushrooms, North America. Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin. p. 346. ISBN 0-395-91090-0. 
  17. ^ Lucas J. (1982). VNR Color Dictionary of Mushrooms. New York, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. pp. 30–1. ISBN 0-442-21998-9. 
  18. ^ Kuo M. (September 2006). "Clathrus columnatus". Mushroom Expert. Retrieved 2011-07-11. 
  19. ^ Akata I, Doğan HH. (2011). "Pseudocolus fusiformis, an uncommon stinkhorn new to Turkish mycobiota". Mycotaxon 115: 259–62. doi:10.5248/115.259. 
  20. ^ Burk WR. (1976). "Pseudocolus javanicus in Connecticut and its distribution in the United States". Mycotaxon 3: 373–6. 
  21. ^ Kibby G. (1994). An Illustrated Guide to Mushrooms and Other Fungi of North America. Lubrecht & Cramer Ltd. p. 158. ISBN 978-0-681-45384-5. 


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