IUCN threat status:

Not evaluated

Comprehensive Description

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Beaver and Browne, 1978: A twig borer of considerable economic importance through its attacks on coffee, cocoa and tree seedlings. Wood, 1982: This species, known as the black twig borer, most commonly attacks healthy, vigorous twigs of living trees and shrubs. It is of primary economic importance in horticultural and ornamental plants. The adult females bore into twigs about 3 mm in diameter or larger and form a small cavity in the pith. The larvae feed mostly on the ambrosial fungus, but they also extend the pith tunnel slightly. Under favorable circumstances the life cycle may be completed in less than a month. Rabaglia et al. 2006: This non-native species is distinguished from X. germanus by the smaller size and the presence of strial setae on the declivity. Commonly known as the black twig borer, it aggressively attacks healthy twigs of living trees and shrubs in the southeastern United States, and causes significant economic impact. Wood, 2007: This is an exceedingly destructive species. It is capable of boring into the most vigorous growing, succulent twigs (1-2 cm in diameter) or a fruiting stalk, where it bores an axial pith tunnel several centimeters in length. Eggs are deposited in small clusters in the parent chamber. Larvae feed primarily on the symbiotic fungus mycelium. Growth is rapid and a life cycle may be completed in as little as two weeks. Hulcr and Cognato, 2012: Very short entrance tunnel leading into cavity of variable shape. This habit shared with related Cnestus, but not with Hadrodemius or Anisandrus, both of which create only tunnels. Beaver and Liu, 2010: The biology has been reviewed by Browne (1961), Brader (1964), Entwhistle (1972), Le Pelley (1968) and Beaver (1988) amongst others. This is a species of considerable economic importance because it can attack and breed in healthy shoots and twigs. This can result in the introduction of pathogenic fungi. The main economic host is coffee (Coffea spp.) (Rubiaceae), but it is also a pest of tea (Camellia thea) (Theaceae) in Japan, of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) (Sterculiaceae) and avocado (Persea americana) (Lauraceae) in Southeast Asia and elsewhere, and may kill seedlings and saplings of shade and forest trees (e.g. Browne 1968; Le Pelley 1968; Entwhistle 1972).

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© Xyleborini Ambrosia Beetles

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