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Beaver and Browne, 1978: One of the commonest ambrosia beetles in Penang, in small stems and branches. The gallery system usually has a few branches in one transverse plane without definite brood chambers. Emergences from H. ferrea occurred 5-7 weeks after attacks. A species of potential economic importance through its attacks on young trees. Kirkendall and Faccoli, 2010: This species of ambrosia beetle is native to tropical and subtropical Asia. It is now globally distributed in the tropics and subtropics and has been identified in the Mediterranean zone. This polyphagous species utilizes multiple hosts and breeds by means of inbreeding. Hulcr and Cognato, 2012: Unusual pattern of occurrence New Guinea is unusual, possibly recently introduced and spreading. Very common around Madang (1250 individuals coll. Hulcr), but only three other records: PNG, Morobe, Wau logging area (3 indiv., 1981, BBM), West Papua (as Dutch New Guinea, no date, USNM), and New Guinea, Fiume Purari(?) (1894, USNM). Native New Guinean xyleborines have usually even distribution (Hulcr et al., 2007c). Beaver and Liu, 2010: The biology has been described by Beeson (1930), Browne (1961), Schedl (1963) (all as Xyleborus semiopacus), and Beaver (1988) amongst others. The ambrosia fungus is a species of Ambrosiella (Kinuura 1995). This is a species of economic importance because, like Xylosandrus compactus, it can attack and breed in healthy shoots and twigs. This can result in the introduction of pathogenic fungi (Sreedharan et al. 1991; Davis & Dute 1997). It seems to be an infrequent pest in the Oriental and Afrotropical regions, although attacks on transplants have been recorded (e.g. Browne 1968). In the southern United States, attacks on healthy orchard trees and tree saplings have occurred causing economic loss (Kovach & Gorsuch 1985). Wood, 1982: In Malaya (Brown 1961:104), this species may attack cut material from 1.5 cm in diameter to large logs. It has also been reported to attack newly transplanted seedlings near the root collar. The galleries resemble those of Xyleborus dispar (Fabricius). Rabaglia et al. 2006: This non-native species is easily distinguished from other Xyleborines in North America by the lack of declivital striae and the numerous, confused declivital granules giving the declivity a dull appearance. It has been reported to attack healthy and newly transplanted trees and shrubs causing significant loss.