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 Thallus: squamulose; forming strongly convex structures up to 2 cm diam., usually lacking a hypothallus; squamules: very thick, up to 0.5 mm thick and up to 2 mm wide, peripherally often with convex lobes, centrally becoming pulvinate; upper surface: brownish, smooth; upper cortex: paraplectenchymatous with irregularly thickened cell walls, 20-30 µm thick; Apothecia: common, often proliferating; up to to 1.5 mm diam, with variously developed thalline margin; disc: brown, convex; exciple: subparaplectenchymatous, often 80-100 µm thick; hymenium: I+ blue-green, turning red-brown, 100-120 µm high; asci: clavate, with apical amyloid sheets, 8-spored; ascospores: simple, colorless, ellipsoid, 17-25 x 7-10 µm; Pycnidia: not observed; Spot tests: all negative; Secondary metabolites: none detectable.; Substrate and ecology: dry rock outcrops of granite or ultrabasic rocks, mainly at lower or middle altitudes (possibly also in the higher mountains); World distribution: only known from western North America from New Mexico to California and north to British Columbia; Sonoran distribution: central and eastern Arizona and southern California.; Notes: It is characterized by the very thick squamules and a tendency to develop numerous secondary lobules around the apothecia. The larger spore size distinguishes it from extreme forms of F. hookerioides, which is mainly a high altitude species. Fuscopannaria leucophaea is a much thinner species of moist river valleys. 


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© Lichen Unlimited: Arizona State University, Tempe.

Source: Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region

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