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 Thallus: foliose, adnate to loosely adnate, 4-12 cm in diam., irregularly lobate; lobes: subirregular to sublinear, elongate, plane to subconvex, separate, contiguous to somewhat imbricate, 1.5-4 mm wide, not lobulate; apices: subrotund, smooth to crenate, eciliate; upper surface: yellow-green, smooth, shiny, epruinose and weakly maculate, moderately to densely isidiate; isidia: initially subglobose, soon becoming cylindrical, simple to sparsely branched, 0.08-0.15 mm in diam., 0.2-1 mm tall; tips: syncorticate, pale brown, sometimes weakly erumpent; soralia and pustulae absent; medulla: white, with continuous algal layer; lower surface: pale to medium brown, plane, moderately to densely rhizinate; rhizines: pale brown, simple, 0.5-1 mm long; Apothecia: rare, substipitate, 2-7 mm wide, laminal on thallus; disc: cinnamon-brown to dark brown; margin: smooth, pruina absent; asci: clavate, 8-spored; ascospores: hyaline, simple, ellipsoid, 9-10 x 4-5 µm; Pycnidia: rare, immersed; conidia: bifusiform, 5-6 x 0.5 µm; Spot tests: upper cortex K-, C-, KC-, P-; medulla K-, C-, KC-, P+ orange; Secondary metabolites: upper cortex with usnic acid (major); medulla with succinprotocetraric acid (major), fumarprotocetraric acid (major or minor), protocetraric acid (minor) and sometimes with virensic and physodalic acids (minor or trace).; Substrate and ecology: on acidic rocks, often in open, sometimes marine-influenced, subtropical habitats; World distribution: eastern Asia, Africa, North and South America and Oceania; Sonoran distribution: common in southern California, Baja California Sur, Sonora and Sinaloa.; Notes: Xanthoparmelia subramigera is the only isidiate species in the region with a brown lower cortex and medullary fumarprotocetraric acid as the major secondary metabolite. It occurs fairly commonly in Oceania, and is relatively common in coastal to somewhat inland areas. 


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© Lichen Unlimited: Arizona State University, Tempe.

Source: Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region

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