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DescriptionThallus: crustose, thin, comprised of discrete areoles, c. 0.25 mm wide at first, later up to 0.4-0.55 mm wide, plane or convex, sometimes becoming continuous or rimose, rugose; surface: gray to dark brown, dull; margin: indeterminate; prothallus: lacking, or determinate on smooth bark and limited by a narrow, entire, dark prothallus; vegetative propagules: absent; Apothecia: sessile, frequent, contiguous or not, up to 0.5-1(-1.4) mm in diam.; disc: black, persistently plane, sometimes white pruinose, more rarely orange pruinose; thalline margin: concolorous with thallus, c. 0.1 mm wide, entire and persistent; excipular ring: sometimes conspicuous, raised; thalline exciple: 60-110 µm wide laterally; cortex: 10-20 µm wide; cells: up to 4.5-6 µm wide, pigmented; algal cells: up to 7.5-11.5 µm in diam.; medulla with crystals visible in polarized light; thalline exciple: 90-120 µm thick below; cortex to (20-)40-60(-100) µm, hyphae columnar; proper exciple: usually pigmented brown, often continuous below hypothecium, 5-15 µm wide laterally, 15-30 µm at periphery; hymenium: 120-140 µm tall; paraphyses: 1.5-2 µm wide, moderately conglutinate, with apices up to 3.5-5 µm wide, usually heavily pigmented, immersed in a dispersed pigment forming a red-brown epihymenium, orange surface crystals sometimes present, dissolving in K; hypothecium: hyaline or light yellowish brown in upper part, (35-)6080(-110) µm thick; asci: clavate, 80-100 x 23-30 µm, 48-spored; ascospores: brown, 1-septate, bluntly ellipsoid, type A development, Physcia-type, (21.5-)26-27.5(-32) x (11-)13.5-14.5(-17) µm, wall thickenings developing late with wall pigmentation particularly at apices, lumina finally becoming inflated in overmature spores, many spores slightly waisted at maturity; torus: eventually heavily pigmented like walls; walls: not or very lightly ornamented; Pycnidia: immersed in thallus, c. 100 µm in diam.; conidiophores: 1-2(-3) celled, unbranched, type VI; conidia: bacilliform, c. 4.5 x 1-1.5 µm; Spot tests: K- or K+ sordid yellow, C-, KC-, P-; Secondary metabolites: sphaerophorin (major), isosphaeric acid (minor).; Substrate and ecology: growing on the bark of conifers, deciduous trees, and chaparral twigs; frequently collected with other Rinodina species at elevations of 215-1525 m; World distribution: a North American endemic belonging to the Californian floristic element, with a Pacific coast, oceanic distribution from Josephine Co., Oregon to the California coast ranges and the northern Sierra Nevada; Sonoran distribution: southern California, only a single recent record at 1525 m from the San Jacinto Mountains, Riverside County.; Notes: Rinodina badiexcipula is named after, and is usually characterized by, its pigmented proper exciple. The species is otherwise characterized by its large apothecia with relatively thick margins, reminiscent of R. oregana, and by the presence of sphaerophorin crystals in the medulla. Rinodina oregana has significantly larger, Dirinaria-type spores possessing very obvious Type B development, lacks the pigmented proper exciple and sphaerophorin, and also lacks a columnar lower cortex in the apothecia. The spores of R. badiexcipula typically develop a rather prominent torus (but not illustrated in Fig. 4, Mayrhofer and Sheard 2002). Material of R. badiexcipula, together with R. oregana, form the basis of records of R. succedens (Hasse 1913), and also includes material of R. roboris (Herre 1910).