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 Squamules: up to 10 mm wide, elongate, ascending, concave to weakly convex; upper surface: olivaceous or reddish brown to medium brown, dull, epruinose or partly pruinose, smooth or sparingly fissured; margin: usually white, down-turned to up-turned, entire or lobed; upper cortex: up to 55-140 µm thick, composed of thick-walled hyphae with angular lumina, containing crystals of lichen substances but no calcium oxalate; medulla: containing crystals of lichen substances but no calcium oxalate; lower cortex: of anticlinally oriented hyphae, containing calcium oxalate; lower surface: white to medium brown; Apothecia: up to 2 mm diam., laminal, immarginate even when young, dark brown to black, epruinose; ascospores: ellipsoid, 10-14 x 5-7 µm; Pycnidia: laminal, immersed; conidia: bacilliform, 6-9 x 1 µm; Spot tests: upper cortex and medulla K-, C+ red, KC+ red, P-; Secondary metabolites: gyrophoric acid and trace of lecanoric acid.; Substrate and ecology: on soil or rock, usually in rock crevices in some shade, mainly in conifer forests and above tree line, at 1380-3540 m; World distribution: Japan and western North America; Sonoran distribution: fairly common in Arizona, California and Baja California.; Notes: A chemical strain containing anthraquinones in the lower cortex is known from northern California and Idaho (Timdal 1986). 

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© Lichen Unlimited: Arizona State University, Tempe.

Source: Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region

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