The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • "Hymenoptera." Wikipedia. 2013. .
  • A. C. Twomey, The bird population of an elm-maple forest with special reference to aspection, territorialism, and coactions, Ecol. Monogr. 15(2):175-205, from p. 202 (1945).
  • Bale JS, van Lenteren JC, Bigler F (2008) Biological control and sustainable food production. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 363: 761–776.
  • Borror, Donald, Charles Triplehorn, and Norman Johnson. An Introduction to the Study of Insects. 6th ed. Saunders College Publishing, 1989. 665-744. Print.
  • Brodeur J, Boivin G (2004) Functional ecology of immature parasitoids. Annual Review of Entomology 49: 27–49.
  • Brusca, Richard C., and Gary J. Brusca. 1990. Invertebrates. xiii + 992
  • Brusca, Richard C., and Gary J. Brusca. 2002. Invertebrates, Second Edition. xx + 936
  • Capinera, John. "Wasps, Ants, Bees, and Sawflies (Hymenoptera)." Encyclopedia of Entomology. 4. 2008.
  • D. I. Rasmussen, Biotic communities of Kaibab Plateau, Arizona, Ecol. Monogr. 11(3):228-275, from p. 261 (1941).
  • D. L. Pattie and N. A. M. Verbeek, Alpine birds of the Beartooth Mountains, Condor 68:167-176 (1966); Alpine mammals of the Beartooth Mountains, Northwest Sci. 41(3):110-117 (1967).
  • De Somviele B, Lyytikainen-Saarenmaa P, Niemela P (2004) Sawfl y (Hym., Diprionidae) outbreaks on Scots pine: eff ect of stand structure, site quality and relative tree position on defoliation intensity. Forest Ecology and Management 194: 305–317.
  • Flabbee J, Petit N, Jay N, Guenard L, Codreanu F et al. (2008) Th e economic costs of severe anaphylaxis in France: an inquiry carried out by the Allergy Vigilance Network. Allergy 63:360–365.
  • Foy, Sally; Oxford Scientific Films. 1982. The Grand Design: Form and Colour in Animals. Lingfield, Surrey, U.K.: BLA Publishing Limited for J.M.Dent & Sons Ltd, Aldine House, London. 238 p.
  • Gallai N, Salles JM, Settele J, Vaissiere BE (2009) Economic valuation of the vulnerability of world agriculture confronted with pollinator decline. Ecological Economics 68: 810–821.
  • Gaston KJ (1991) The magnitude of global insect species richness. Conservation Biology 5:283–296.
  • Gauld ID, Bolton B (1988) The Hymenoptera. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Goulet H, Huber JT (1993) Hymenoptera of the World: An identifi cation guide to families. Ottawa: Agriculture Canada pp.
  • Goulet H, Huber JT (1993) Hymenoptera of the World: An identifi cation guide to families. Ottawa: Agriculture Canada pp.
  • Heimpel GE, de Boer JG (2008) Sex determination in the Hymenoptera. Annual Review of Entomology 53: 209–230.
  • Holway DA, Lach L, Suarez AV, Tsutsui ND, Case TJ (2002) Th e causes and consequences of ant invasions. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 33: 181–233.
  • I. K. Sharma, A study of ecosystems of the Indian desert, Trans. Indian Soc. Desert Technol. and Univ. Center Desert Stud. 5(2):51-55, from p. 52 and A study of agro-ecosystems in the Indian desert, ibid. 5:77-82, from p. 79 1980).
  • J. D. Allan, 1982. The effects of reduction in trout density on the invertebrate community of a mountain stream. Ecology 63:1444-1455, from p. 1452.
  • Jonsson M, Wratten SD, Landis DA, Gurr GM (2008) Recent advances in conservation biological control of arthropods by arthropods. Biological Control 45: 172–175.
  • K. Paviour-Smith, The biotic community of a salt meadow in New Zealand, Trans. R. Soc. N.Z. 83(3):525-554, from p. 542 (1956).
  • Klotz JH, Klotz SA, Pinnas JL (2009) Animal bites and stings with anaphylactic potential. Journal of Emergency Medicine 36: 148–156.
  • L. D. Harris and L. Paur, A quantitative food web analysis of a shortgrass community, Technical Report No. 154, Grassland Biome. U.S. International Biological Program (1972), from p. 17.
  • LaSalle J, Gauld ID (1993) Hymenoptera: their diversity, and their impact on the diversity of other organisms. In: LaSalle J, Gauld ID (Eds) Hymenoptera and Biodiversity. Wallington, UK: CAB International, 1–26.
  • Lach L, Thomas ML (2008) Invasive ants in Australia: documented and potential ecological consequences. Australian Journal of Entomology 47: 275–288.
  • Lyytikainen-Saarenmaa P, Tomppo E (2002) Impact of sawfl y defoliation on growth of Scots pine Pinus sylvestris (Pinaceae) and associated economic losses. Bulletin of Entomological Research 92: 137–140.
  • M. A. Mayse and P. W. Price, 1978. Seasonal development of soybean arthropod communities in east central Illinois. Agro-Ecosys. 4:387-405, from p. 402.
  • Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 16, 2011 at
  • N. N. Smirnov, Food cycles in sphagnous bogs, Hydrobiologia 17:175-182, from p. 179 (1961).
  • Nyman T, Farrell BD, Zinovjev AG, Vikberg V (2006) Larval habits, host-plant associations, and speciation in nematine sawfl ies (Hymenoptera : Tenthredinidae). Evolution 60: 1622–1637.
  • Pallasmaa, J. 1995. Animal architecture. Helsinki: Museum of Finnish Architecture. 126 p.
  • R. D. Bird, Biotic communities of the Aspen Parkland of central Canada, Ecology, 11:356-442, from p. 410 (1930).
  • Sharkey M (2007) Phylogeny and classifi cation of Hymenoptera. Zootaxa 1668: 521–548.
  • Shaw, S. R., & Jones G. Z. (2009). A new species of solitary Meteorus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) reared from caterpillars of toxic butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Ecuador. Journal of Insect Science. 9(34), 1-8.
  • Tributsch, H. 1984. How life learned to live. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. 218 p.
  • Tscharntke T, Bommarco R, Clough Y, Crist TO, Kleijn D, et al. (2007) Conservation biological control and enemy diversity on a landscape scale. Biological Control 43: 294–309.
  • V. S. Summerhayes and C. S. Elton, Contributions to the ecology of Spitsbergen and Bear Island, J. Ecol. 11:214-286, from p. 232 (1923).
  • W. E. Ricker, 1934. An ecological classification of certain Ontario streams. Univ. Toronto Studies, Biol. Serv. 37, Publ. Ontario Fish. Res. Lab. 49:7-114, from pp. 78, 89.
  • Waide RB, Reagan WB (eds) (1996) The food web of a tropical rainforest. University of Chicago Press, Chicago
  • WoRMS (2014). Hymenoptera. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • Wootton, A. 1984. Insects of the World. Blandford. 224 p.


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