Overview

Distribution

Range Description

D. pumila is endemic to a small region around Toliara in the southwestern part of Madagascar. It is found near the hill ‘La Table’ approximately 25 km east of Toliara and along the adjacent escarpment edge of the Mahafaly Plateau extending to the area just south of Onilahy river. A collection from 2006 from the Zombitse area (Tefy 919) has been misidentified as D. pumila. Based on the distribution of herbarium specimens, the extent of occurrence (EOO) is 311 km² and the area of occupancy (AOO) is 93 km². It is recorded from sea level up to 160 m.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
D. pumila is a dwarf, deciduous shrub-like tree less than 3 m tall. It is found within the spiny forest and coastal bushland with succulent species of Euphorbia on limestone rock (Du Puy et al. 1995, 2002). It is slow-growing, and thought to be pollinated by moths due to its night opening flowers, white petals with long dark stamens and an upper petal with a narrow tubular nectariferous claw (Du Puy et al. 2002).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Delonix pumila

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Delonix pumila

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
EN
Endangered

Red List Criteria
B1ab(iii,iv,v)+2ab(iii,iv,v)

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2014

Assessor/s
Rivers, M.

Reviewer/s
Hilton-Taylor, C.

Contributor/s

Justification
Delonix pumila is listed as Endangered since its extent of occurrence is less than 5,000 km² and its area of occupancy is less than 500 km²; genetic studies show that the species consists of a single subpopulation (=location); and habitat continues to decline in quality and extent, and probably in the number of mature individuals due to the effect of harvesting, population expansion and habitat destruction. It is also known to be very slow-growing, and so will have less chance of adapting to these pressures.

History
  • 1998
    Endangered
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Population

Population
Genetic population analysis shows that the species consists of a single interbreeding population. Only 2% of the genetic variation is distributed within sample sites, and 98% are distributed between different sample sites. Genetically D. pumila contains low levels of genetic diversity compared to other species in Delonix s.l. (Rivers et al. 2011). New collections (from 2007/2008) show that the largest subpopulation exists along the main road into Toliara; at the other known localities much smaller stands were found.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
The natural vegetation where D. pumila is found is under threat from widespread exploitation for firewood and charcoal production. Selective logging, increased cultivation and grazing of livestock are also leading to further degradation of the habitat (Moat and Smith 2007). The rate of degradation has been exacerbated in recent years and the naturally slow growth and regeneration of the spiny forest is putting the endemic species of the area at particular risk (WWF 2001). The spiny forest is one of the primary vegetation types in Madagascar that is declining significantly with an estimated rate of loss of 1.2% per year (Harper et al. 2007, MEFT et al. 2009). Also, the main population of the species exists close to one of the largest and expanding towns in Madagascar and may be impacted by road widening. The species may also be collected from the wild and sold as an ornamental internationally. Climate change modelling predicted little change in climatically suitable range by 2100 (Rivers et al. 2011).
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
D. pumila is found in a proposed protected area (Onilahy), although the effectiveness of this proposed protection is not known. Seed collections have been made and are held by the Millennium Seed Bank (MSB, Wakehurst Place, UK) as well as in-country by Silo National des Graines Forestières (SNGF). Botanic garden collections exist according to BGCI (www.bgci.org).
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Wikipedia

Delonix pumila

Delonix pumila is a species of legume in the Fabaceae family. It is found only in Madagascar.

Sources


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