Overview

Distribution

Range Description

Arachis cardenasii occurs in Bolivia (Santa Cruz) and Paraguay (Alto Paraguay). This species is found on the department of Santa Cruz (Bolivia), mainly on the southern edge of the Chiquitana Mountains. It was also collected in San Matias, on the border with Mato Grosso (Brazil), and in the north of the Paraguayan "chaco" (Krapovickas and Gregory 1994).
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
A. cardenasii is a perennial herb which occurs in the Dry Chaco and the Chiquitano Dry Forests ecoregion, usually growing in deep, sandy soils. The species has been also collected in disturbed habitat such as along roadsides.

A. cardenasii is a diploid species from Robora, Bolivia and is highly resistant to the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne arenaria) and many other pathogens and insects (Stalker et al. 2002)

Wild Arachis spp. are important because they show resistence and even apparent immunity to diseases such as rust (Puccinia arachidis Speg.), web blotch (Phoma arachidicola Marasas, Pauer & Boerema), early leaf spot (Cercospora arachidicola S.Hori) are late leaf spot (Cercosporidium personatum Berk. & M.A.Curtis) which might have a great impact on the worldwide production of Arachis hypogaea L., commonly known as the peanut or groundnut, which is an important and widespread food legume.

The diploid (2n=20) wild species, Arachis cardenasii, has been hybridized with A. hypogaea and the hybrids progenies exhibited high level of resistance to the disease previously mentioned (Varman 2000).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
Contu, S.

Reviewer/s
Hilton-Taylor, C.

Contributor/s

Justification
Arachis cardenasii is assessed as Least Concern. The species is distributed in Bolivia (Santa Cruz) and Paraguay (Alto Paraguay). It appears to be common and some subpopulations are known to occur within the protected areas network. Arachis cardenasii is one of the wild Arachis species important as potential sources of resistance to various diseases of the cultivated groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), so more in situ and ex situ conservation actions are suggested to ensure the long term health of this key species.
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Population

Population
The species appears to be common in its natural range at present.

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
Habitat conversion due to agricultural expansion and unplanned colonization is the major threat to the ecoregions where the species occurs. The conservation of plant diversity, particularly of those species essential for human nutrition and crop improvement, is of critical importance. Despite the proven value of these genetic resources, the conservation status of the wild species is not clear, and it is believed that many of them might become threatened in the near future as a result of the utilization of the species as genetic resources, along with the lack of ex situ (i.e. the need of a greater germplasm collection) and in situ conservation (i.e. more protected areas) actions that would ensure the long term conservation status of the species.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no known conservation measures specifically for A. cardenasii, but the species is known to occur in some protected areas, such as the Defensores del Chaco National Park and Santa Cruz la Vieja National Historic Park. Sample of seed of A. cardenasii should be collected and stored in the Millennium Seed Bank as an ex situ conservation measure.
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Wikipedia

Arachis cardenasii

Arachis cardenasii is a herb in the Faboideae family. This plant is cited as gene sources for research in plant biology of peanut (Arachis hypogaea); for example, Cercospora leaf spot resistance.


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