Overview

Distribution

Range Description

Arachis cruziana is endemic to Bolivia. It grows to the south of the Serrania de Chiquitos, in the vicinity of San Jose de Chiquitos, in the department of Santa Cruz.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
A. cruziana is an annual herb which grows in the chiquitano, in places where the soil is almost pure sand (Krapovickas and Gregory 1994), the species has also been collected in the Dry Chaco ecoregion. Several wild species produce small amounts of seeds in their natural habitat or even in germplasm banks.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
VU
Vulnerable

Red List Criteria
B1ab(iii)

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
Contu, S.

Reviewer/s
Hilton-Taylor, C.

Contributor/s

Justification
Arachis cruziana is endemic to Bolivia, and its distribution range seems to be resticted to a small area around San Jose de Chiquitos (Santa Cruz), meaning that the extent of occurrence (EOO=9,000 km²) meets the threshold to be evaluated in the Vulnerable category. Collections of A. cruziana were made in the Chiquitano dry forests and Dry Chaco ecoregions, where the natural vegatation is threatened by agricultural expansion and unplanned urbanization, and the species is not known to occur within the protected areas network at present. On the basis of the data currently avalaible (EOO, number of locations and threats to the species) it appears to be of high conservation concern and the Vulnerable category is assigned, until further research and botanical survey fully clarify the extent and health of this species.
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Population

Population
There is no precise information on population number, status and trends at present for the species, but it seems to be restricted to the area around San Jose de Chiquitos (Santa Cruz). In a botanical survey in 2007 some populations relatively well preserved were discovered (VMABCC-BIOVERSITY 2009), and it was observed that generally there are few individuals per population.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
Habitat conversion due to agricultural expansion and unplanned urbanization is the major threat to the ecoregions where the species occurs. The conservation of plant diversity, particularly of those species essential for human nutrition and crop improvement, is of critical importance. Despite the proven value of these genetic resources, the conservation status of the wild species is not clear, and it is believed that many of them might become threatened in the near future due to genetic resources exploitation, and for the lack of ex situ (the need of a greater germplasm collection) and in situ conservation (i.e. more protected areas) actions that would ensure the long term conservation status of the species.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no known conservation measures specifically for A. cruziana and the species is not currently known to occur within any protected areas. Collections for this species were made in the San Jose de Chiquitos area, which is quite close to the Kaa-iya del Gran Chaco National Park and Integrated Management Natural Area, established in 1995; it is not clear whether the species might occur in this protected area; further reseach and field work are required to clarify the actual distribution of A. cruziana. Samples of seed of A. cruziana are held at the National Plant Germplasm System (USDA, GRIN). The species has been listed as Near Threatened (NT) in the Libro Rojo de parientes silvestres de cultivos de Bolivia (2009), based on the extent of occurrence (EOO et al. 2003) based on the limited information available on the species and on the pressure on the natural habitat in the areas where the species is known to occur.
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