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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Western Ghats, High Altitude, Cultivated, Native of Tropical America"
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General comments

A number of synonyms of the accepted name, Phaseolus coccineus L. have been acknowledged by The Plant List.

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Distribution

"Tamil Nadu: Dindigul, Nilgiri"
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Geographic Range

Phaseolus coccineus is found in China, Canada, the United States, Mexico, Belize, Gutemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Columbia, Ecuador and Peru (This may not represent the entire distribution).

This information was accessed through the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute Herbarium and Tropicos.

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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Phaseolus coccineus var. strigillosus (Piper) Freytag:
Guatemala (Mesoamerica)
Mexico (Mesoamerica)
Honduras (Mesoamerica)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
  • Freytag, G. F. & D. G. Debouck. 2002. Taxonomy, distribution, and ecology of the genus Phaseolus (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae) in North America, Mexico and Central America. Sida Bot. Misc. 23: i–xviii,.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1020714 External link.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Phaseolus coccineus var. griseus (Piper) Freytag:
Honduras (Mesoamerica)
Mexico (Mesoamerica)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
  • Freytag, G. F. & D. G. Debouck. 2002. Taxonomy, distribution, and ecology of the genus Phaseolus (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae) in North America, Mexico and Central America. Sida Bot. Misc. 23: i–xviii,.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1020714 External link.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Phaseolus sylvestris Kunth:
Mexico (Mesoamerica)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Phaseolus multiflorus Willd.:
Ecuador (South America)
Mexico (Mesoamerica)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Phaseolus coccineus Moc. & Sessé ex Don:
Mexico (Mesoamerica)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Phaseolus strigillosus Piper:
Mexico (Mesoamerica)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Phaseolus striatus Brandegee:
Mexico (Mesoamerica)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Phaseolus prorifirus M.E. Jones:
Mexico (Mesoamerica)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Phaseolus leiosepalus Piper:
Mexico (Mesoamerica)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Phaseolus griseus Piper:
Mexico (Mesoamerica)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Phaseolus coccineus L.:
Belize (Mesoamerica)
Canada (North America)
Colombia (South America)
Costa Rica (Mesoamerica)
Ecuador (South America)
El Salvador (Mesoamerica)
Guatemala (Mesoamerica)
Honduras (Mesoamerica)
Mexico (Mesoamerica)
Nicaragua (Mesoamerica)
Panama (Mesoamerica)
United States (North America)
Caribbean (Caribbean)
China (Asia)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Distribution: Native of South America, cultivated in Pakistan.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

Annual, Herbs, Vines, twining, climbing, Taproot present, Nodules present, Stems prostrate, trailing, or mat forming, Stems less than 1 m tall, Stems 1-2 m tall, Stems greater than 2 m tall, Stems solid, Stems or young twigs sparsely to densely hairy, Leaves alternate, Leaves petiolate, Stipules inconspicuous, absent, or caducous, Stipules green, triangulate to lanceolate or foliaceous, Stipules persistent, Stipules free, Leaves compound, Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate, Leaves odd pinnate, Leaf or leaflet margins entire, Leaflets opposite, Stipels present at base of leaflets, Leaflets 3, Leaves glabrous or nearly so, Inflorescences racemes, Inflorescence axillary, Bracts conspicuously present, Bracteoles present, Flowers zygomorphic, Calyx 5-lobed, Calyx 4-lobed, Calyx glabrous, Petals separate, Corolla papilionaceous, Petals red, Banner petal suborbicular, broadly rounded, Banner petal auriculate, Wing petals narrow, oblanceolate to oblong, Keel abruptly curved, or spirally coiled, Keel tips obtuse or rounded, not beaked, Keel petals fused on sides or at tip, Stamens 9-10, Stamens diadelphous, 9 united, 1 free, Filaments glabrous, Style terete, Style spirally coiled, Style hairy, Fruit a legume, Fruit unilocular, Fruit freely dehiscent, Fruit elongate, straight, Fruit strongly curved, falcate, bent, or lunate, Fruit exserted from calyx, Fruit explosively or elastically dehiscent, Valves twisting or coiling after dehiscence, Fruit beaked, Fruit glabrous or glabrate, Fruit hairy, Fruit 3-10 seeded, Seeds ovoid to rounded in outline, Seed surface smooth, Seeds olive, brown, or black.
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Dr. David Bogler

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Description

Twining plant. Leaf trifoliolate, leaflets 7.5-12.5 cm long, broadly rhombic ovate, acute. Inflorescence a peduncled raceme, peduncle nearly equalling or sometimes exceeding the leaves. Calyx and bract subequal. Corolla scarlet or white, 1.8-2.5 cm long. Keel forming 1-2 spirals. Fruit 10-30.0 cm long, sparsely pubescent or subglabrous, beaked.
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

Habit: Climber
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Epiphyte that can reach a height of 2m. Leaves are trifoliate. Fruit is a legume.

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Type Information

Holotype for Phaseolus leiosepalus Piper
Catalog Number: US 43734
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): E. W. Nelson
Year Collected: 1894
Locality: 18 mi NW of Oaxaca, Oaxaca, Mexico, North America
Elevation (m): 2250 to 2850
  • Holotype: Piper, C. V. 1926. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 22: 685.
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Holotype for Phaseolus griseus Piper
Catalog Number: US 450954
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): J. N. Rose & J. H. Painter
Year Collected: 1903
Locality: Near Guadalajara., Jalisco, Mexico, North America
  • Holotype: Piper, C. V. 1926. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 22: 683.
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Holotype for Phaseolus strigillosus Piper
Catalog Number: US 301132
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Verified from the card file of type specimens
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): J. N. Rose
Year Collected: 1897
Locality: Tepic, Santa Teresa., Nayarit, Mexico, North America
  • Holotype: Piper, C. V. 1926. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 22: 685.
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Ecology

Associations

Herbivores

This information is based an ongoing project dedicated to the inventory and dissemination of information on lepidopteran larvae, their host plants, and their parasitoids in a Costa Rican tropical wet forest and an Ecuadorian montane cloud forest.


N= 2 herbivore associations as of 2012.

Hesperiidae: Noctuana haematosticta (Felder & Felder); N=2.

Larval lepidopteran herbivores reared in Napo Province, Ecuador (Yanayacu Biological Station and Center for Creative Studies).

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Foodplant / gall
Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes gall of stem (esp. base) of Phaseolus coccineus

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / pathogen
oospore of Aphanomyces euteiches infects and damages rotten root of Phaseolus coccineus

Foodplant / sap sucker
densely clustered Aphis fabae sucks sap of often stunted, curled shoot (young) of Phaseolus coccineus
Remarks: season: 5-7
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / spot causer
immersed, mainly epiphyllous, clear brown pycnidium of Ascochyta coelomycetous anamorph of Ascochyta phaseolorum causes spots on live leaf of Phaseolus coccineus

Foodplant / pathogen
Bean Common Mosaic virus infects and damages live leaf of Phaseolus coccineus

Foodplant / pathogen
Bean Yellow Mosaic virus infects and damages live, distorted pod of Phaseolus coccineus

Foodplant / pathogen
acervulus of Septoria coelomycetous anamorph of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum infects and damages live leaf of Phaseolus coccineus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / pathogen
Ditylenchus dipsaci infects and damages live, tightly bunched leaves of Phaseolus coccineus

Foodplant / sap sucker
Nezara viridula sucks sap of live Phaseolus coccineus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / spot causer
colony of Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola causes spots on live pod of Phaseolus coccineus

Foodplant / parasite
uredium of Uromyces appendiculatus parasitises live pod of Phaseolus coccineus

Plant / resting place / within
pupa of Zabrotes subfasciatus may be found in seed of Phaseolus coccineus

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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Persistence: ANNUAL, PERENNIAL

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Evolution and Systematics

Evolution

Taxonomy

For original publication details on Phaseolus coccineus see Encycl. [J. Lamarck & al.] 3(1): 70. 1789 [19 Oct 1789]

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Phaseolus coccineus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Phaseolus coccineus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 10
Specimens with Barcodes: 11
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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Management

These species are introduced in Switzerland.
  • Aeschimann, D. & C. Heitz. 2005. Synonymie-Index der Schweizer Flora und der angrenzenden Gebiete (SISF). 2te Auflage. Documenta Floristicae Helvetiae N° 2. Genève.   http://www.crsf.ch/ External link.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Uses

Uses: FOOD, Seed/nut

Production Methods: Cultivated

Comments: Cultivated as fod plant and the tubers of related wild species are also eaten. Also popular as an ornamental plant.

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Uses

Phaseolus coccineus is used culinarily around the world.

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Wikipedia

Phaseolus coccineus

Phaseolus coccineus, known as runner bean,[2] scarlet runner bean,[2] or multiflora bean,[2] is a plant in the Fabaceae family. Runner beans have also been called "Oregon Lima Bean",[3] and in Nahuatl "ayocotl" or in Spanish "ayocote". It differs from the common bean (P. vulgaris) in several respects: the cotyledons stay in the ground during germination, and the plant is a perennial vine with tuberous roots (though it is usually treated as an annual). This species originated from the mountains of Central America. Most varieties have red flowers and multicolored seeds (though some have white flowers and white seeds), and they are often grown as ornamental plants.

The vine can grow to two meters (6 feet) or more in length. The green pods are edible whole before they become fibrous, and the seeds can be used fresh or as dried beans.

The starchy roots are still eaten by Central American Indians. In the UK, the flowers are often ignored, or treated as an attractive bonus to cultivating the plant for the beans, whereas in the US the scarlet runner is widely grown for its attractive flowers by people who would never think of eating it.[4] The flower is known as a favourite of Hummingbirds.

A variety named Judión de la Granja producing large, white, edible beans is cultivated in San Ildefonso, Spain.[5] It is the basis of a Segovian regional dish also named Judiones de la Granja, in which the beans are mixed with pig's ears, pig's trotters and chorizo, amongst other ingredients.[6]

Runner beans contain traces of the poisonous lectin, phytohaemagglutinin, found in common beans.

Phaseolus coccineus subsp. darwinianus is a cultivated subspecies of P. coccineus, it is commonly referred to as the botil bean in Mexico.

Cultivars include:[7]

  • 'Black Runner'
  • 'Butler'
  • 'Case Knife'
  • 'Hammond's Dwarf'
  • 'Painted Lady'
  • 'Pickwick Dwarf'
  • 'Polestar'
  • 'Scarlet Runner'
  • 'White Dutch Runner'

The related species considered most useful for interbreeding with Ph. coccineus to increase its genetic diversity are Ph. dumosus and Ph. vulgaris.[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". 
  2. ^ a b c "USDA GRIN Taxonomy". 
  3. ^ http://www.beeculture.com/content/pollination_handbook/scarlet.html
  4. ^ The Two Hour Garden The Sunday Times (1978)
  5. ^ "Judiones". Judiones de la Granja. 7 September 2008. Retrieved 8 November 2008. 
  6. ^ "Judiones de La Granja recipe". Judiones de la Granja. 22 June 2008. Retrieved 8 November 2008. 
  7. ^ Phaseolus coccineus. FloriData.
  8. ^ "Phaseolus coccineus". The Harlan and de Wet Crop Wild Relative Inventory. Global Crop Diversity Trust, the Millennium Seed Bank of the Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, and the Government of Norway. Retrieved 12 Sep 2013. 
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Notes

Comments

Scarlet Runner Bean is cultivated as an ornamental plant.
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