The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Bradler, S. 1999. The vomer of Timema Scudder, 1895 (Insecta: Phasmatodea) and its significance for phasmatodean phylogeny. Cour. Forschungstinst. Senckenb. 215:43-47.
  • Bradley, James Chester, and Bella S. Galil. 1977. The taxonomic arrangement of the Phasmatodea with keys to the subfamilies and tribes. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, vol. 79, no. 2. 176-208
  • Bragg, P.E. 1995. The Phasmid Database version 1.5. Phasmid Studies 3(2):41-42.
  • Brock, Paul D. 1999. The amazing world of stick and leaf-insects. The Amateur Entomologist, vol. 26. xvi + 165
  • Brusca, Richard C., and Gary J. Brusca. 2002. Invertebrates, Second Edition. xx + 936
  • Günther, K. 1953. Über die taxonomische Gliederung und die geographische Verbreitung der Insektenordnung der Phasmatodea. Beiträge zur Entomol. 3:541-563.
  • Kristensen, N.P. 1975. Phylogeny of hexapod "orders." A critical review of recent accounts. Z. Zool. Syst. Evol.13:1-44.
  • Otte, Daniel, and Paul Brock. 2005. Phasmida Species File: Catalog of Stick and Leaf Insects of the World, Second Edition. 414
  • Sellick, J.T.C. 1997. Descriptive terminology of the phasmid egg capsule, with an extended key to the phasmid genera based on egg structure. Syst. Entomol. 22:97-122.
  • Tilgner, E. H. 2002. Systematics of Phasmida. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Georgia.
  • Tilgner, E. H., Kiselyova, T. G., and McHugh, J. V. 1999. A morphological study of Timema cristinae Vickery with implications for the phylogenetics of Phasmida. Dtsche. Entomol. Z. 46(2):149-162.
  • Wheeler, W.C. 1998. Sampling, groundplans, total evidence and the systematics of arthropods, In Fortey, R.A. & Thomas, R. H. (Eds.) Arthropod Relationships, Systematics Association special volume series 55, Chapman and Hall, London.
  • Windsor, D.M., Trapnell, D.W. and Amat, G. 1996. The egg capitulum of a neotropical walkingstick Calynda bicuspis, induces aboveground egg dispersal by the ponerine ant Ectatomma ruidum. J. Insect Behav. 9:353-362.


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