Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Plains to Low Altitude, also Cultivated"
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Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Tree
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Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Range Description

E. variegata has large natural distribution in the tropics and has been introduced into a large number of countries for cultivation. The original distribution is considered to be from India to Malaysia but the species has spread towards Africa and Polynesia.
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"Maharashtra: Kolhapur Karnataka: Chikmagalur, Coorg, N. Kanara, Shimoga Kerala: All districts Tamil Nadu: All districts"
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"
Global Distribution

Indo-Malesia, China and Africa

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: All Districts

"
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Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

Perennial, Trees, Woody throughout, Nodules present, Stems erect or ascending, Stems greater than 2 m tall, Stems solid, Stems or young twigs sparsely to densely hairy, Leaves absent at flowering time, Leaves alternate, Leaves petiolate, Stipules conspicuous, Stipules green, triangulate to lanceolate or foliaceous, Stipules deciduous, Stipules free, Leaves compound, Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate, Leaves odd pinnate, Leaf or leaflet margins entire, Leaflets opposite, Stipels present at base of leaflets, Leaflets 3, Leaves glabrous or nearly so, Inflorescences racemes, Inflorescence axillary, Inflorescence terminal, Bracts very small, absent or ca ducous, Bracteoles present, Flowers zygomorphic, Calyx 2-lipped or 2-lobed, Calyx glabrous, Petals separate, Corolla papilionaceous, Petals clawed, Petals red, Banner petal ovoid or obovate, Wing petals narrow, oblanceolate to oblong, Wing tips obtuse or rounded, Keel petals fused on sides or at tip, Stamens 9-10, Stamens diadelphous, 9 united, 1 free, Filaments glabrous, Style terete, Fruit a legume, Fruit stipitate, Fruit unilocular, Fruit tardily or weakly dehiscent, Fruit elongate, straight, Fruit oblong or ellipsoidal, Fruit coriaceous or becoming woody, Fruit exserted from calyx, Fruit beaked, Fruit glabrous or glabrate, Seeds ovoid to rounded in outline, Seed surface smooth, Seeds olive, brown, or black.
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Dr. David Bogler

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Deciduous tree; bark yellowish or greenish-grey, smooth, peeling off in papery flakes; blaze yellow; prickles black on branches, falling after a few years. Leaves trifoliate, alternate; stipules small, lateral; rachis 17-21 cm, slender, pulvinate, glabrous; stipels gland-like; petiolule 7-10 mm, stout, glabrous; leaflet 10-13.5 x 8.5-12.5 cm, widely ovate, rhomboid or deltoid-ovate, base truncate or obtuse, apex acuminate, margin entire, glabrous, membranous; 3 ribbed from base; lateral nerves 4-7 pairs, pinnate, prominent, ascending, intercostae reticulate, faint. Flowers bisexual, bright red, in dense racemes; calyx spathaceous, oblique, recurved, split to the base on one side, 5-toothed at the tip; petals 5, sessile, standard 6.5×2.5 cm, oblong-elliptic, apex obtuse, wings 1.5 x 1 cm, obovate, keel 1. 5 x 1.7 cm, oblong-falcate, free; stamens 10, monadelphous, alternately longer and shorter, vexillary filament free; anthers uniform; ovary stipitate, inferior, pubescent,1-celled, ovules many; style curved, subulate at the apex, not bearded; stigma capitate. Fruit a pod 15-30.5 cm long, torulose, constricted between seeds, dehiscent; seeds 6-8."
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Diagnostic

Habit: Tree
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
The taxon is found in coastal lowland bush and shrubland areas and the dry edges of mangrove forests usually on sandy loams. The rainfall in its native distribution ranges between 800 mm to 1,500 mm with a temperature range of 20–32°C. The taxon is known to be drought tolerant.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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General Habitat

"Dry deciduous forests, widely grown as pepper stand and for fencing"
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: March-April
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Erythrina variegata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 8
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Erythrina boninensis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
Groom, A.

Reviewer/s
Hilton-Taylor, C.

Contributor/s

Justification
Erythrina variegata has a very large distribution in the tropics and has been introduced into a large number of countries through cultivation. This taxon is not considered to be threatened and is thus rated as Least Concern.
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Population

Population
There is no data available relating to population size.

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
There are no major threats to this species.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species is known to occur within the protected areas network and seeds have been collected as a method of ex situ conservation by the Millennium Seed Bank Project.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

Medicinal
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Wikipedia

Erythrina variegata

Erythrina variegata (syn. E. indica Lam., E. variegata var. orientalis (L.) Merr.; Tiger's Claw, Indian Coral Tree and Sunshine Tree; Pāli: pāricchattaka; Sanskrit: pārijāta, पारिजात) is a species of Erythrina native to the tropical and subtropical regions of eastern Africa, the Indian Subcontinent, northern Australia, and the islands of the Indian Ocean and the western Pacific Ocean east to Fiji.[1]

Description[edit]

It is known as the Roluos Tree in Cambodia, deigo or deegu on Okinawa, drala on Fiji, madar in Bangladesh, Modar in Assam, dapdap in the Philippines,[2] erabadu in Sri Lanka, man da ra ba in Tibet, as thong lang in Thailand and as vông nem in Vietnam.

It is a thorny deciduous tree growing to 27 m (89 ft) tall. The leaves are pinnate with a 20 cm petiole and three leaflets, each leaflet up to 20 cm long and broad. It has dense clusters of scarlet or crimson flowers and black seeds.[3]

It is valued as an ornamental tree. Several cultivars have been selected, including 'Alba' with white flowers.[3]

It was designated the official flower of Okinawa Prefecture in 1967. The deigo flower features in the popular song "Shima Uta" by The Boom, one of the most well-known songs associated with Okinawa. In addition, the use of the wood of the deigo tree is one of the unique characteristics of Ryukyuan lacquerware.

In Vietnam, the leaves are used to wrap fermented meat (Vietnamese: nem).

The Tamils call it as "mullu murukkan" (Tamil: முள்ளுமுருக்கன்). In Siddha medicine it is used especially for menstrual disorders and fissures at penis tip (Tamil: ஆண்குறிப்புண்).

References[edit]

  1. ^ Germplasm Resources Information Network: Erythrina variegata
  2. ^ (2011-08). "Dapdap". Philippine Medicinal Plants. Retrieved on 2012-06-12.
  3. ^ a b Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5.
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Erythrina orientalis

Erythrina orientalis is a plant species in the genus Erythrina.

The pterocarpan orientanol A can be isolated from the wood of E. orientalis.[1] The pterocarpans orientanol B and C, folitenol and erythrabyssin II, the pterocarpene erycristagallin and the prenylated isoflavone bidwillol A can be isolated from the roots.[2]

References[edit source | edit]

  1. ^ A pterocarpan from Erythrina orientalis. Hitoshi Tanaka, Toshihiro Tanaka and Hideo Etoh, Phytochemistry, Volume 45, Issue 1, May 1997, Pages 205-207, doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(96)00841-2
  2. ^ Two pterocarpans from Erythrina orientalis. Hitoshi Tanaka, Toshihiro Tanaka and Hideo Etoh, Phytochemistry, Volume 47, Issue 3, February 1998, pp. 475-477, doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(97)00596-7
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