Habitat and Ecology
Foodplant / parasite
Erysiphe diffusa parasitises Sophora flavescens
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Barcode data: Sophora flavescens
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Sophora flavescens
Public Records: 4
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
|This article's factual accuracy is disputed. (January 2011)|
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Sophora flavescens is a species of plant in the genus Sophora a genus of the Fabaceae family, that contains about 52 species, nineteen varieties, and seven forms that are widely distributed in Asia, Oceanica, and the Pacific islands.About fifteen species in this genus have a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicines. The root is known as Ku shen. is a typical traditional Chinese medicine.
Growth and cultivation
S. flavescens is an evergreen slow growing shrub growing to 1.5 m (4.9 ft) by 1 m (3.3 ft). It is hardy to 0–10 °F (−18 – −12 °C) and to US zone 6. The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires moist soil. Like many other species in the Fabaceae family, this species can fix nitrogen.
|This section needs more medical references for verification or relies too heavily on primary sources. (January 2015)|
It is anti-inflammatory and an antioxidant.
A mix of Sophora flavescens and licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) gave better liver protective and anti-hepatocarcinogenic effects than licorice or Sophora alone. In addition, glycyrrhiza + sophora had a protective effect on immunosuppression, a strong non-specific anti-inflammatory effect, and reduced the incidence of sodium and water retention, protecting against pseudohypercorticosteroidism.[non-primary source needed]
Sophora could possibly be used as a treatment for mast cell-derived allergic inflammatory diseases.
A promising source of a natural, novel, new antifoulant.
A variety of chemical compounds have been isolated from S. flavescens, including:
- Matrine and matrine oxide, quinolizidine alkaloids found in the roots
- Kushenin, a pterocarpan and isoflavonoid
- Sophoraflavanone G
- Trifolirhizin, a pterocarpan flavonoid, isolated from the roots
- 8-Prenylkaempferol, a prenylflavonoid
- Oxysophocarpine and sophocarpine, alkaloids
- You-Ping Zhu 1998 Chinese Materia Medica – Chemistry, Pharmacology and Applications ISBN 90-5702-285-0
- Zhu Z.-C., Wang H.-Z., Yang F."Composite sophorae injection in prevention of toxicity and adverse effects caused by chemotherapeutic agents" Journal of Practical Oncology 2009 24:6 (592–594)
- Dong H.L., Dong S.S., Dai Y.C., Beom J.K., Yun Y.L., Young H.K. "Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects of Sophora flavescens root extraction in lipopolysaccharide-activated raw 264.7 cells", Korean Journal of Medical Mycology 2010 15:2 (39–50)
- Han J.-M., An S., Kim M.-J., Jin Y.-Y., Baek S.-W., Park J.-S., Lee W.S., Park K.-H., Jeong T.-S."Sophora flavescens attenuates atherosclerosis and hyperlipidemia in LDL receptor-deficient mice" Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 2008 28:6
- Kim H.Y., Jeong M., Jung H.J., Jung Y.J., Yokozawa T., Choi J.S."Hypolipidemic effects of Sophora flavescens and its constituents in poloxamer 407-induced hyperlipidemic and cholesterol-fed rats." Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin 2008 31:1 (73–78)
- Jin J.H., Kim J.S., Kang S.S., Son K.H., Chang H.W., Kim H.P."Anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity of total flavonoids of the roots of Sophora flavescens" Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2010 127:3 (589–595)
- Park S.J., Nam K.W., Lee H.J., Cho E.Y., Koo U., Mar W. "Neuroprotective effects of an alkaloid-free ethyl acetate extract from the root of Sophora flavescens Ait. Against focal cerebral ischemia in rats" Phytomedicine 2009 16:11 (1042–1051)
- Wan X.-y., Luo M., Li X.-d., He P."Hepatoprotective and anti-hepatocarcinogenic effects of glycyrrhizin and matrine" Chemico-Biological Interactions 2009 181:1 (15–19)
- Hong M.H., Lee J.Y., Jung H., Jin D.-H., Go H.Y., Kim J.H., Jang B.-H., Shin Y.-C., Ko S.-G,"Sophora flavescens Aiton inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines through inhibition of the NF κB/IκB signal pathway in human mast cell line (HMC-1)" Toxicology in Vitro 2009 23:2 (251–258)
- Lee S.S., Zhang B., He M.L., Chang V.S.C., Kung H.F. "Screening of active ingredients of herbal medicine for interaction with CYP450 3A4 Phytotherapy Research 2007 21:11 (1096–1099)
- Kim J.H., Ryu Y.B., Kang N.S., Lee B.W., Heo J.S., Jeong I.-Y., Park K.H. Glycosidase inhibitory flavonoids from Sophora flavescens Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 2006 29:2 (302–305)
- Feng D.Q., Ke C.H., Lu C.Y., Li S.J."Herbal plants as a promising source of natural antifoulants: Evidence from barnacle settlement inhibition." Biofouling 2009 25:3 (181–190)
- Hyun S.K., Lee W.-H., Jeong D.M., Kim Y., Choi J.S. Inhibitory effects of kurarinol, kuraridinol, and trifolirhizin from Sophora flavescens on tyrosinase and melanin synthesis Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 2008 31:1 (154–158)
- Hwang J.-H., Lee B.M."Inhibitory effects of plant extracts on tyrosinase, L-DOPA oxidation, and melanin synthesis" Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health – Part A: Current Issues 2007 70:5 (393–407)
- Yoshikawa et al. (1985) Chem. Pharm. Bull. 33, 4267.
- Schwarte A 2002 Phytochemische und pharmakologische Untersuchungen der Wurzeln von Sophora flavescens,unter besonderer Berücksichtigung ihrer Wirkung auf die Leukotrien- und Prostaglandinbiosynthese
- Cha J.-D., Moon S.-E., Kim J.-Y., Jung E.-K., Lee Y.-S. "Antibacterial activity of sophoraflavanone G isolated from the roots of Sophora flavescens against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus" Phytotherapy Research 2009 23:9 (1326–1331)
- Choi, Byung-Min; Oh, Gi-Su; Lee, Jang Won; Mok, Ji Ye; Kim, Dae Keun; Jeong, Seung-Il; Jang, Seon Il (2010). "Prenylated chalcone from Sophora flavescens suppresses Th2 chemokine expression induced by cytokines via heme oxygenase-1 in human keratinocytes". Archives of Pharmacal Research 33 (5): 753–60. doi:10.1007/s12272-010-0515-8. PMID 20512474.
- hang Y., Zhu H., Ye G., Huang C., Yang Y., Chen R., Yu Y., Cui X. Antiviral effects of sophoridine against coxsackievirus B3 and its pharmacokinetics in rats Z Life Sciences 2006 78:17 (1998–2005)
- Zhou H., Lutterodt H., Cheng Z., Yu L.L."Anti-Inflammatory and antiproliferative activities of trifolirhizin, a flavonoid from Sophora flavescens roots." Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2009 57:11 (4580–4585)
- Chiou, Wen-Fei; et al. (2011). "8-Prenylkaempferol Suppresses Influenza A Virus-Induced RANTES Production in A549 Cells via Blocking PI3K-Mediated Transcriptional Activation of NF-κB and IRF3". Hindawi Publishing Corporation. Retrieved January 28, 2013.
- Liu G., Dong J., Wang H., Hashi Y., Chen S. "Characterization of alkaloids in Sophora flavescens Ait. by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry" [Article in Press] Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 2011
|This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (January 2015)|
- Terada, M.; Sano, M.; Ishii, A.I. et al. – Studies on chemotherapy of parasitic helminths. (IV). Effects of alkaloids from Sophora flavescens on the motility of parasitic helminths and isolated host tissues. Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi, 79: 105–111, 1982.
- medicinal plants in the Republic of Korea
- pdf Jian Ya Ling, Guo Ying Zhang, Zhao Jie Cui, Chang Kai Zhang, 2007. Supercritical fluid extraction of quinolizidine alkaloids from Sophora flavescens Ait. and purification by high-speed counter-current chromatography. Journal of Chromatography A, 1145: 123–127