Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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"Native of tropical America, widely cultivated in the tropics."
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Distribution: It is a native of Mexico, introduced in India and Pakistan, widely cultivated in Punjab and Sind.
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Cultivated in tropics, a native of tropical America.
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Physical Description

Morphology

"
Flower

In terminal or axillary panicled spikes; cream. Flowering from December-February.

Fruit

A strap-shaped pod, moniliform, circinate or falcate; seeds orbicular, shiny, with white aril. Fruiting February onwards.

Field tips

Bark ash-coloured with many spines throughout.

Leaf Arrangement

Alternate-spiral

Leaf Type

Bipinnate

Leaf Shape

Oblong-oblanceolate

Leaf Apex

Obtuse

Leaf Base

Obtuse

Leaf Margin

Entire

"
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Physical Description

Perennial, Trees, Shrubs, Woody throughout, Nodules present, Stems erect or ascending, Stems or branches arching, spreading or decumbent, Stems greater than 2 m tall, Trunk or stems armed with thorns, spines or prickles, Stems solid, Stems or young twigs glabrous or sparsely glabrate, Leaves alternate, Leaves petiolate, Extrafloral nectary glands on petiole, Stipules conspicuous, Stipules persistent, Stipules free, Stipules spinose or bristles, Leaves compound, Leaves bipinnate, Leaf or leaflet margins entire, Leaflets opposite, Leaflets 4, Leaves glabrous or nearly so, Inflorescence panicles, Inflorescences glob ose heads, capitate or subcapitate, Inflorescence terminal, Bracts very small, absent or caducous, Bracteoles present, Flowers actinomorphic or somewhat irregular, Calyx 5-lobed, Calyx hairy, Petals united, valvate, Petals white, Petals pinkish to rose, Stamens numerous, more than 10, Stamens monadelphous, united below, Filaments glabrous, Style terete, Fruit a legume, Fruit unilocular, Fruit freely dehiscent, Fruit strongly curved, falcate, bent, or lunate, Fruit twisted, Fruit spirally coiled or contorted, Fruit exserted from calyx, Fruit compressed between seeds, Fruit glabrous or glabrate, Fruit red, Fruit 3-10 seeded, Seeds ovoid to rounded in outline, Seed surface smooth, Seeds olive, brown, or black, Seeds with appendage - aril, caruncle, funiculus, or strophiole.
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Description

A medium sized, evergreen tree. Leaf stipulate, stipules modified into spine; rachis 1-2.5 cm long, pinnae 1 pair, leaflets two on each pinna, elliptic-oblong, oblique, 2-4.5 cm long. Inflorescence small globose, sessile or short peduncled heads arranged in long panicled raceme. Flowers greenish white. Calyx c.1 mm long, funnel shaped, pilose. Corolla c. 3-4 mm long, petals united below the middle. Stamens monadelphous, much exserted, not glandular. Style filiform, stigma simple. Pods 10-12.5 cm long, c. 2-3 mm broad, turgid, twisted, sutures indented between the seeds. Seeds 5-9, enveloped in pink or white pulpy aril which is edible. Seed c. 2.5 cm long, spiny, black.
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Habit: A medium-sized, armed tree, upto 15m."
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flower/Fruit

Fl. Per. October-April.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Pithecellobium dulce

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pithecellobium dulce

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 10
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Reasons: Mexico through Central America to Colombia and Venezuela. (Introduced in southern Florida, Cuba, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, and St. Croix. Found along roads and in towns throughout Puerto Rico. Naturalized in various other tropical regions on other continents.) This species endures drought, survives both heat and shade and is able to grow on poor soils and denuded lands in dry climates and on seacoasts even with its roots in brackish or salt water.

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Uses

Uses: Beverage (non-alcoholic), FORAGE/BROWSE, Folk medicine, Building materials/timber, Fuelwood, Gum/resin/latex, Tannin/dye, Cultivated ornamental, OTHER USES/PRODUCTS

Comments: Wood-general construction, fence posts, fuel; Bark-yellow dye for tanning skins, astringent, mucilage; flowers are meliferous; fruit-forrage, acidulous aril around seed is consumed and used to make a beverage similar to lemonade; leaves used medicinally; tree planted as a hedge.

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Folklore

"

The outer thick skin covering the seeds has a combination of sour and sweet taste, it is liked very much by children.

"
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Uses

Wood used for agricultural implements and fuelwood. Leaves eaten by cattle.

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Wikipedia

Pithecellobium dulce

Pithecellobium dulce is a species of flowering plant in the pea family, Fabaceae, that is native to the Pacific Coast and adjacent highlands of Mexico, Central America, and northern South America.[2] It is an Introduced species and extensively naturalised in the Caribbean, Florida, Guam as well as in India, Bengal and the Philippines. It is considered an invasive species in Hawaii.

Description[edit]

P. dulce is a tree that reaches a height of about 10 to 15 m (33 to 49 ft). Its trunk is spiny and its leaves are bipinnate. Each pinna has a single pair of ovate-oblong leaflets that are about 2 to 4 cm (0.79 to 1.57 in) long. The flowers are greenish-white, fragrant, sessile and reach about 12 cm (4.7 in) in length, though appear shorter due to coiling. The flowers produce a pod, which turns pink when ripe and opens to expose an edible pulp. The pulp contains black shiny seeds that are circular and flat.

The seed is dispersed via birds that feed on the sweet pulp. The tree is drought resistant and can survive in dry lands from sea level to an elevation of 1,500 m (4,900 ft), making it suitable for cultivation as a street tree.

Uses[edit]

As food[edit]

The seed pods contain a sweet and sour pulp that which in Mexico is eaten raw as an accompaniment to various meat dishes and used as a base for drinks with sugar and water (agua de huamuche). The seeds are also edible and refined to extract oil, which amounts to 10% of their weight. They also contain 28% protein.[3]

As medicine[edit]

The bark and pulp are astringent and hemostatic. The indigenous peoples of Mesoamerica use the pulp and bark against gum ailments, toothache and hemorrhages in general. A bark extract is also used against dysentery, chronic diarrhea and tuberculosis. An extract of the leaves is used for gall ailments and to prevent miscarriage. The ground seed is used to clean ulcers.[3]

Ecology[edit]

P. dulce is a host plant for the caterpillars of the red-bordered pixie (Melanis pixe), three-spot grass yellow (Eurema blanda) and many other moths.[4]

Synonyms[edit]

Depending on the region of its occurrence pithecellobium is known by different names. In its native Mexico, the tree is known as huamuche, guamuche / huamúchil/ guamúchil / cuamúchil / deriving from its Nahuatl name cuauhmochitl. In the wider region it is also called "pinzán"', or 'guamá americano (Puerto Rico).

It is called "seema chintakaya" in Telugu. The name "monkeypod" is more commonly used for the rain tree (Albizia saman). Other names include blackbead, sweet Inga,[2] ផ្លែអំពិលទឹក (Plaeh umpel tek) (Khmer), Makham thet (Thai: มะขามเทศ), ʻopiuma (Hawaiian), damortis or kamantiris (Ilokano), kamachile (Tagalog),[5] கொர்கலிக்காய்/ கோணக்காய்/ கோன புளியங்கா/ கொடுக்காப்புளி kodukkappuli (Tamil), ದೊರ ಹುಣಸೆ/ಸೀಮೆ ಹುಣಸೆ dora hunase or seeme hunase (Kannada), વિલાયતી આંબલી vilayati ambli (Gujarati), जलेबी jalebi or ganga imli (Hindi),জিলাপিJilapi (Bengali), seeme hunase (Kannada), विलायती चिंच vilayati chinch (Marathi) and చింత chinta (Telugu).

In India it goes by the name "Madras thorn", although it is not native to Madras. The name "Manila tamarind" is also misleading, since it is neither closely related to tamarind, nor native to Manila.

This plant is known under numerous junior synonyms:[6]

  • Acacia obliquifolia M.Martens & Galeotti
  • Day man " شجرة الديمان " Yemen, Adenاليمن, عدن
  • Albizia dulcis (Roxb.) F.Muell.
  • Feuilleea dulcis (Roxb.) Kuntze
  • Inga camatchili Perr.
  • Inga dulcis (Roxb.) Willd.
  • Inga javana DC.
  • Inga javanica DC.
  • Inga lanceolata sensu Blanco
Inga lanceolata Willd. is Pithecellobium lanceolatum
  • Inga leucantha C.Presl
  • Inga pungens Willd.
  • Mimosa dulcis Roxb.
  • Mimosa edulis Gagnep.
  • Mimosa pungens (Willd.) Poir.
  • Mimosa unguis-cati Blanco
Mimosa unguis-cati L. is Pithecellobium unguis-cati
  • Pithecellobium littorale Record
  • Pithecollobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (lapsus)

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Pithecellobium dulce - (Roxb.) Benth. Guama Americano". NatureServe Explorer. NatureServe. Retrieved 2010-09-19. 
  2. ^ a b c "Taxon: Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 1994-08-23. Retrieved 2010-03-29. 
  3. ^ a b Commission for the Knowledge and Use of Biodiversity: Pithecellobium Dulce: http://www.conabio.gob.mx/conocimiento/info_especies/arboles/doctos/45-legum38m.pdf
  4. ^ "Red-bordered Pixie Melanis pixe (Boisduval, 1836)". Butterflies and Moths of North America. Retrieved 2010-09-19. 
  5. ^ Grandtner, Miroslav M. (2005). Elsevier's Dictionary of Trees: With Names in Latin, English, French, Spanish and Other Languages 1. Elsevier. pp. 670–671. ISBN 978-0-444-51784-5. 
  6. ^ International Legume Database & Information Service (ILDIS) (2005): Pithecellobium dulce. Version 10.01, November 2005. Retrieved 2008-MAR-30.
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Notes

Comments

The fleshy pulp of the fruit is eaten. The wood is used for fuel.
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