Overview

Comprehensive Description

Comments

This is one of the few annual plants of the prairie that are non-parasitic on the roots of perennial plants. The Partridge Pea is quite attractive in regards to both its foliage and flowering habit, providing quick bloom during the first year of a wild flower garden. Return
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Description

This native annual plant is ½-2' tall, branching occasionally. Shorter plants are erect, while taller plants are inclined to sprawl. The slender hairless stems are initially light green, but become reddish brown. The alternate compound leaves are medium to dark green. They have petioles with nectaries that attract insects. Each compound leaf has up to 20 leaflets, which are somewhat sensitive to touch. A leaflet is about 2/3" long and 1/3" across. It is hairless and oblong. The bright yellow flowers appear along the major stems near the axils of the leaves. They are about 1" across, and have an open, irregular shape. Each flower has 5 rounded petals that vary in relative size, and there are about 10 reddish stamens. There is no floral scent. The blooming period is quite long, from mid-summer to fall. During the fall, pods develop that are initially hairy green, but later become hairless and dark brown. They are about 2½" long, ¾" across, and rather flat. The seeds are dark brown, rather flat, and slightly pitted. The root system consists of a central taproot and smaller auxillary roots.
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Description

General: Pea Family (Fabaceae). Partridge pea is an annual sub-erect native legume plant that reaches a height of 1 to 3 feet. The leaves consist of 10 to 15 pairs of small, narrow leaflets that are somewhat delicate to the touch. The showy yellow flowers, about 1 inch across, grow 2 to 4 together in clusters on the stem. Flowers normally bloom July-September. The fruit is a straight, narrow pod 1½ to 2½ inches long, which splits along 2 sutures as it dries; the pod sides spiral to expel the seeds some distance from the parent plant.

Distribution: For current distribution, please consult the Plant Profile page for this species on the PLANTS Web site.

Habitat: Partridge pea grows on prairies, bluffs, riverbanks and river bottoms, as well as upland woods of the Great Plains. Partridge pea is common on sandy savannahs of the lower Gulf Coastal Plain. Partridge pea is most common on sandy to sandy loam soils. It grows best in full sunlight but will survive under shady conditions. Partridge pea has low water requirements and will grow and produce seed under stressed conditions. The lower pH limit of showy partridge pea is 5.0.

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USDA NRCS James E. “Bud” Smith Plant Materials Center, Knox City, Texas and Manhattan Plant Materials Center, Manhattan, Kansas

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Alternative names

Cassia chamaecrista L., C. fasciculata, Michx., sleeping plant, prairie partridge pea, showy partridge pea, prairie senna, large-flowered sensitive-pea, dwarf cassia, partridge pea senna, locust weed, golden cassia

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USDA NRCS James E. “Bud” Smith Plant Materials Center, Knox City, Texas and Manhattan Plant Materials Center, Manhattan, Kansas

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Adaptation

The USDA hardiness zones for showy partridge pea are 3 to 9. It is distributed throughout the Midwest, eastern, and southern United States.

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USDA NRCS James E. “Bud” Smith Plant Materials Center, Knox City, Texas and Manhattan Plant Materials Center, Manhattan, Kansas

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

Annual, Herbs, Taproot present, Nodules present, Stems erect or ascending, Stems less than 1 m tall, Stems solid, Stems or young twigs sparsely to densely hairy, Stem hairs hispid to villous, Stems hairs pilose or spreading, Leaves alternate, Leaves petiolate, Extrafloral nectary glands on petiole, Stipules conspicuous, Stipules green, triangulate to lanceolate or foliaceous, Stipules persistent, Stipules free, Leaves compound, Leaves even pinnate, Leaf or leaflet margins entire, Leaflets opposite, Leaflets 10-many, Leaves hairy on one or both surfaces, Flowers in axillary clusters or few-floweredracemes, 2-6 flowers, Inflorescence axillary, Bracts very small, absent or caducous, Bracteoles present, Flowers actinomorphic or somewhat irregular, Calyx 5-lobed, Calyx hairy, Petals separate, Petals clawed, Petals orange or yellow, Stamens 9-10, Stamens heteromorphic, graded in size, Stamens complet ely free, separate, Filaments glabrous, Anthers opening by basal or terminal pores or slits, Style terete, Fruit a legume, Fruit unilocular, Fruit freely dehiscent, Fruit elongate, straight, Fruit oblong or ellipsoidal, Fruit exserted from calyx, Fruit internally septate between the seeds, Fruit compressed between seeds, Fruit explosively or elastically dehiscent, Valves twisting or coiling after dehiscence, Fruit glabrous or glabrate, Fruit hairy, Fruit 3-10 seeded, Seeds subquadrate, Seed surface smooth, Seeds olive, brown, or black.
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Dr. David Bogler

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Type Information

Isotype for Chamaecrista bellula Pollard
Catalog Number: US 383726
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Verified from the card file of type specimens
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): S. Tracy
Year Collected: 1899
Locality: St. Vincent., Florida, United States, North America
  • Isotype: Pollard, C. L. 1902. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 15: 19.
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Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Isotype for Chamaecrista bellula Pollard
Catalog Number: US 383726
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Verified from the card file of type specimens
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): S. M. Tracy
Year Collected: 1899
Locality: St. Vincent., Florida, United States, North America
  • Isotype: Pollard, C. L. 1902. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 15: 19.
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Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Isotype for Chamaecrista puberula Greene
Catalog Number: US 442398
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Verified from the card file of type specimens
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): S. M. Tracy
Year Collected: 1901
Locality: Galveston Island., Texas, United States, North America
  • Isotype: Greene, E. L. 1903. Pittonia. 5: 134.
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Holotype for Chamaecrista bellula Pollard
Catalog Number: US 444862
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Verified from the card file of type specimens
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): S. M. Tracy
Year Collected: 1899
Locality: St. Vincent., Florida, United States, North America
  • Holotype: Pollard, C. L. 1902. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 15: 19.
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Isotype for Chamaecrista bellula Pollard
Catalog Number: US 961305
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Verified from the card file of type specimens
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): S. M. Tracy
Year Collected: 1899
Locality: St. Vincent., Florida, United States, North America
  • Isotype: Pollard, C. L. 1902. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 15: 19.
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Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Isotype for Chamaecrista puberula Greene
Catalog Number: US 562399
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Verified from the card file of type specimens
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): S. M. Tracy
Year Collected: 1901
Locality: Galveston ID., Texas, United States, North America
  • Isotype: Greene, E. L. 1903. Pittonia. 5: 134.
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Holotype for Chamaecrista littoralis Pollard
Catalog Number: US 371572
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): S. M. Tracy & F. E. Lloyd
Year Collected: 1900
Locality: Breton Island, Louisiana, United States, North America
  • Holotype: Pollard, C. L. 1902. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 15: 20.
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Isosyntype for Cassia depressa Pollard
Catalog Number: US 252677
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): G. V. Nash
Year Collected: 1895
Locality: Chattahoochee "River Junction"., Gadsden, Florida, United States, North America
  • Isosyntype: Pollard, C. L. 1895. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club. 22: 515.
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Syntype for Cassia depressa Pollard
Catalog Number: US 212855
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): F. Peck
Locality: Potosi, Missouri, United States, North America
  • Syntype: Pollard, C. L. 1895. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club. 22: 515.
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Holotype for Chamaecrista rostrata Wooton & Standl.
Catalog Number: US 660032
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): G. L. Fisher
Year Collected: 1910
Locality: Logan., New Mexico, United States, North America
  • Holotype: Wooton, E. O. & Standley, P. C. 1913. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 16: 135.
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Isotype for Chamaecrista rostrata Wooton & Standl.
Catalog Number: US 660614
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): G. L. Fisher
Year Collected: 1910
Locality: Logan., New Mexico, United States, North America
  • Isotype: Wooton, E. O. & Standley, P. C. 1913. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 16: 135.
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Holotype for Chamaecrista brachiata Pollard
Catalog Number: US 330115
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): C. L. Pollard & G. Collins
Year Collected: 1898
Locality: Miami., Dade, Florida, United States, North America
  • Holotype: Pollard, C. L. 1902. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 15: 20.
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Isotype for Chamaecrista rostrata Wooton & Standl.
Catalog Number: US 737478
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): G. L. Fisher
Year Collected: 1910
Locality: Logan., New Mexico, United States, North America
  • Isotype: Wooton, E. O. & Standley, P. C. 1913. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 16: 135.
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Ecology

Dispersal

Establishment

Drill seeds at 1/4 to 3/4 inch deep at a rate of 10-15 pounds of Pure live Seed (PLS) per acre. If broadcasting seeds, the rate should be increased and seed covered by lightly disking or by cultipacking. Partridge pea can be planted from late winter (March) to late spring (May). Scarification will improve germination of seed, but it is not necessary to establish plantings of partridge pea. Seed should also be inoculated with the correct species of rhizobium before planting. Fertilizer should be applied at the recommended rate, based on soil samples, at time of planting.

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USDA NRCS James E. “Bud” Smith Plant Materials Center, Knox City, Texas and Manhattan Plant Materials Center, Manhattan, Kansas

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Associations

Faunal Associations

Long-tongued bees are responsible for pollination of the flowers, which includes such visitors as honeybees, bumblebees, Miner bees, and large Leaf-Cutting bees. They are attracted to the food pollen of the purple anthers, and are then dusted by the reproductive pollen of the yellow anthers. Two species of bees that are supposed to be oligoleges of Partridge Pea are Anthophora walshii and Svastra atripes atripes. Sometimes leaf-Cutting bees (Megachile spp.) cut off portions of the petals for their brood chambers. The flowers are usually cross-pollinated by insects, but sometimes they are self-pollinating. The petiolar nectaries attract a completely different assortment of insects, which includes such visitors as Halictine bees, wasps, flies, and ants. Unusual visitors to the nectaries are Velvet Ants (Mutillidae), which are hairy wingless wasps (in the case of the females). The caterpillars of several sulfur butterflies feed on the foliage of this plant, including Eurema lisa (Little Sulfur), Eurema nicippe (Sleepy Orange), and Phoebis sennae cubule (Cloudless Sulfur). The seeds are an important food source for the Bobwhite and Greater Prairie Chicken. The leaves are suspected of being toxic to livestock. However, White-Tailed Deer occasionally browse on the foliage in limited amounts. Photographic Location
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Flower-Visiting Insects of Partridge Pea in Illinois

Cassia chamaecrista (Partridge Pea)
(this plant is also referred to as Chamaecrista fasciculata; long-tongued bees collect pollen & are the only effective pollinators; short-tongued bees collect stray pollen [csp] or suck petiolar nectar; flies feed on stray pollen [fsp] or suck petiolar nectar; beetle activity is unspecified; other insects suck petiolar nectar only; most observations are from Robertson, otherwise they are from Moure & Hurd, LaBerge, Krombein et al., and MacRae as indicated below)

Visit flowers for pollen:

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera cp fq; Apidae (Bombini): Bombus auricomus cp fq, Bombus fraternus cp, Bombus griseocallis cp fq, Bombus impatiens cp, Bombus pensylvanica cp fq, Bombus vagans cp; Anthophoridae (Anthophorini): Anthophora walshii cp olg; Anthophoridae (Eucerini): Florilegus condigna cp, Melissodes bimaculata bimaculata cp, Melissodes communis cp, Melissodes comptoides cp fq, Svastra atripes atripes cp fq olg; Megachilidae (Megachilini): Megachile brevis brevis cp fq cpt, Megachile latimanus cp, Megachile mendica cp, Megachile petulans cp, Megachile texana cp fq

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Agapostemon sericea csp np, Agapostemon texanus texanus csp np, Augochloropsis metallica metallica csp np, Lasioglossum pilosus pilosus csp np, Lasioglossum versatus csp np

Flies
Syrphidae: Milesia virginiensis fsp np

Visit petiolar nectaries:

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Augochlorella aurata, Lasioglossum imitatus fq, Lasioglossum pectoralis, Lasioglossum tegularis, Lasioglossum versatus fq, Lasioglossum zephyrus

Wasps
Sphecidae (Astatinae): Astata unicolor; Sphecidae (Bembicinae): Nysson rufiventris, Synnevrus aurinotus fq, Zanysson plesia; Sphecidae (Crabroninae): Crossocerus lentus, Enoplolindenius robertsoni, Oxybelus emarginatus, Oxybelus mexicanus; Sphecidae (Larrinae): Liris argentata, Lyroda subita, Tachysphex acuta, Tachysphex belfragei fq, Tachysphex mundus, Tachysphex tarsata, Tachytes chrysopyga, Tachytes intermedius, Tachytes mergus, Tachytes pepticus; Sphecidae (Pemphredoninae): Pluto tibialis; Sphecidae (Philanthinae): Cerceris kennicottii, Cerceris rufinoda; Sphecidae (Sphecinae): Chalybion californicus, Chlorion aerarius, Sceliphron caementaria; Vespidae (Eumeninae): Euodynerus foraminatus; Pompilidae: Ageniella arcuatus, Anoplius nigritus, Cryptocheilus terminatus, Entypus fulvicornis, Poecilopompilus interrupta, Priocnemis pretiosa; Tiphiidae: Tiphia illinoensis, Tiphia intermedia; Mutillidae: Dasymutilla macra, Timulla sayi, Timulla vagans fq; Chrysididae: Chrysis inaequidens, Chrysis intricata, Chrysis montana, Holopyga ventrale; Perilampidae: Perilampus hyalinus; Braconidae: Rhygoplitis terminalis

Ants
Formicidae: Camponotus castanea, Formica fusca, Formica schaufussi fq, Lasius niger fq

Flies
Tabanidae: Tabanus lineola; Syrphidae: Syritta pipiens, Toxomerus marginatus, Toxomerus politus; Conopidae: Thecophora occidensis; Tachinidae: Chaetoplagia atripennis; Sarcophagidae: Helicobia rapax, Senotainia rubriventris; Muscidae: Neomyia cornicina; Platystomatidae: Rivellia quadrifasciata; Chloropidae: Thaumatomyia glabra

Plant Bugs
Miridae: Lygus lineolaris

Visitation Type Unspecified:

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Agapostemon splendens (MH), Augochloropsis sumptuosa (MH), Lasioglossum bruneri (MH); Halictidae (Nomiinae): Nomia nortoni (MH, Kr); Colletidae (Colletinae): Colletes mandibularis (LB, Kr); Andrenidae (Andreninae): Andrena accepta (Kr), Andrena imitatrix imitatrix (Kr)

Beetles
Buprestidae: Acmaeodera texana (McR)

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Chamaecrista fasciculata

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Chamaecrista fasciculata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 5
Specimens with Barcodes: 9
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Status

Please consult the PLANTS Web site and your State Department of Natural Resources for this plant’s current status (e.g. threatened or endangered species, state noxious status, and wetland indicator values).

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USDA NRCS James E. “Bud” Smith Plant Materials Center, Knox City, Texas and Manhattan Plant Materials Center, Manhattan, Kansas

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Management

Cultivars, improved and selected materials (and area of origin)

The USDA NRCS Plant Materials Centers have three releases:

‘Comanche’ (TX) partridge pea, a cultivar release from the Knox City Plant Materials Center (PMC) in Texas, was selected for use as a warm-season legume cover crop in the re-vegetation of critical areas, mined lands, as a wildlife food plant, and as a plant for beautification.

‘Riley’ (KS), a release from the Manhattan Plant Materials Center in Manhattan, Kansas, was developed to provide an adapted cultivar for use in wildlife habitat improvement, erosion control, and recreational area plantings in the Central Plains Region. Riley has also been shown to be adapted for conservation use in southwestern and southern Missouri, Arkansas; western Tennessee, northeastern Mississippi, western Louisiana, and northeast Texas.

Lark Selection (AR), a selected class release from the Jamie L. Whitten PMC in Coffeeville, Mississippi, was selected to provide an adapted partridge pea for use in critical area seeding mixtures, wildlife food and cover, and beautification of roadsides in Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and western Tennessee (mid-South region).

Contact your local Natural Resources Conservation Service (formerly Soil Conservation Service) office for more information. Look in the phone book under “United States Government”. The Natural Resources Conservation Service will be listed under the subheading “Department of Agriculture.”

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USDA NRCS James E. “Bud” Smith Plant Materials Center, Knox City, Texas and Manhattan Plant Materials Center, Manhattan, Kansas

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Seed production

Showy partridge pea seed can be cold moist stratified for 56 days to improve germination. Under controlled conditions germination occurs at an alternating cycle of 30oC daytime and 15oC nighttime temperatures. The optimum soil temperature for germination is 20oC to 30oC. Seventy percent of seeds will germinate in 7 to 25 days. The seed count of partridge pea is approximately 62,000 seeds per pound from cultivated plants.

Seed for production fields should be planted ¼ to ¾ inches deep on raised beds 36-40 inches apart. The seeding rate for seed production is 2-3 pounds PLS per acre. Being a legume that fixes nitrogen partridge pea only needs one 20-pound application of phosphorous applied in the spring each year. Seeds are ready for harvest in late October and November. Partridge pea may be direct harvested with a combine or plants may be swathed and combined after drying. Average seed production at the Knox City Plant Materials Center has been recorded at 550 pounds per acre. About 37 percent of harvested material at Manhattan, Kansas, yields clean seed.

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USDA NRCS James E. “Bud” Smith Plant Materials Center, Knox City, Texas and Manhattan Plant Materials Center, Manhattan, Kansas

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Established stands should be disked lightly in the spring to expose mineral soil on which the seed can germinate. Partridge pea usually reseeds but will gradually disappear without regular maintenance. Light disking to remove weeds, small brush, and old sod is necessary for healthy stands. In areas where prescribed burning is permitted, controlled fire is an excellent method for controlling unwanted vegetation. Fire or disking should be done in late winter for best results. Weeds can also be controlled during the growing season by mowing over the top of partridge pea plants.

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USDA NRCS James E. “Bud” Smith Plant Materials Center, Knox City, Texas and Manhattan Plant Materials Center, Manhattan, Kansas

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

The preference is full sun and average to dry conditions. The soil can contain sand, loam, gravel, or clay, to which this plant will add nitrogen. It favors poor soil because of reduced competition from other plants. Partridge Pea is easy to grow, but can spread readily in dry, open situations. It's not usually bothered by disease. Range & Habitat
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Uses

Wildlife: The seed is one of the major food items of northern bobwhite and other quail species because it remains in sound condition throughout the winter and early spring. Partridge pea was found to be one of the most important fall and winter foods of bobwhite quail in Alabama. Partridge pea seeds are high in phosphorus content and protein value, and low in crude fiber and lignin making digestibility generally high.

Seeds of this legume are also eaten by the greater and lesser prairie-chicken, ring-necked pheasant, mallard, grassland birds, and field mice. Deer can eat it without being poisoned (note livestock use). Partridge pea often grows in dense stands, producing litter and plant stalks that furnish cover for upland game birds, small mammals, small non-game birds, and waterfowl.

Partridge pea is considered an important honey plant, often occurring where few other honey plants are found. Nectar is not available in the flowers of showy partridge pea but is produced by small orange glands at the base of each leaf. Ants often seek the nectar and are frequent visitors. The common sulfur butterfly lays its eggs on the leaves, and the larvae use the leaves as a food source.

Erosion control: The plant can be used along road banks and stream banks to control erosion. Partridge pea most commonly occurs as a pioneer or colonizer of disturbed areas.

Recreation and beautification: The flowers of this plant can be used to beautify areas where wildflowers are planted. The foliage is somewhat sensitive and will partially close when touched. Partridge pea is commonly grown as an ornamental. The bright yellow flowers make it a popular choice for use in native gardens.

Ethnobotanic: Cherokee Drug (Sports Medicine): root medicine used to keep ball players from tiring.Cherokee Drug (Stimulant): compound infusion given for fainting spells. Seminole Drug (Antiemetic): cold decoction of plant used for nausea. Seminole Other (Tools): plants used as a bed for ripening persimmons.

Livestock: Although partridge pea foliage is nutritious, it can be poisonous and should be considered potentially dangerous to cattle. Partridge pea leaves and seeds contain a cathartic substance. This substance is effective either in fresh plant material or in dry hay. Domestic livestock will eat partridge pea leaves. However, if large quantities are consumed, the animal may be stressed and die.

Restoration: Partridge pea is considered an excellent species for planting on disturbed areas for erosion control and improving soil fertility. It establishes rapidly, fixes nitrogen, reseeds, and slowly decreases as other species in the seeding mix begin to dominate the site. Nitrogen fixation is greatest during the flowering stage. To help prevent weed establishment and control soil erosion along county roadsides in Iowa, partridge pea is often included in the seed mix with other forbs and grasses.

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USDA NRCS James E. “Bud” Smith Plant Materials Center, Knox City, Texas and Manhattan Plant Materials Center, Manhattan, Kansas

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Wikipedia

Chamaecrista fasciculata

Chamaecrista fasciculata (Partridge Pea) is a species of legume native to most of the eastern United States.[1] It is an annual which grows to approximately 0.5 meters tall.[1] It has bright yellow flowers from early summer until first frost,[2] with flowers through the entire flowering season if rainfall is sufficient.[1]

The flowers are hermaphroditic, although a fraction of plants, less than 5%, do not produce sufficient pollen to reproduce as males. This phenomenon has been studied in a variety of plants as a possible evolutionary step towards dioecy, in which male and female flowers occur on separate plants.[2] C. fasciculata is pollinated only by bees.[3]

It thrives in areas that have been burned recently before declining in number in the following years.[1] It is considered an excellent choice for planting in disturbed areas, as it will quickly cover an area, preventing erosion, while still allowing other plants to become established.[1] It is also grown as an ornamental or for honey production.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f "Cassia fasciculata". Fire Effects Information System. 
  2. ^ a b Holly L. Williams and Charles B. Fenster (1998). "Ecological and genetic factors contributing to the low frequency of male sterility in Chamaecrista Fasciculata (Fabaceae)". American Journal of Botany (Botanical Society of America) 85 (9): 1243–1250. doi:10.2307/2446634. JSTOR 2446634. 
  3. ^ TD Lee, FA Bazzaz. "Regulation of fruit and seed production in an annual legume, Cassia fasciculata". Ecology, 1982. JSTOR 1938864.  Missing or empty |url= (help)
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Kartesz (1999) lumps all of the subtaxa of Cassia fasciculata except var. macrosperma into Chamaecrista fasciculata var. fasciculata.

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