The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp. External link.
  • Chakrabarty T, Gangopadhyay M. 1996. The genus Acacia. J. Econ. Taxon Bot. 20:599-633
  • Flora of the Hawaiian Islands 113. 1888. (Fl. Hawaiian Isl.)
  • Image metadata at Bioimages ( External link.
  • Polhill,R,M. 1990. Legumineuses.In:Flore des Mascareignes,Vol 80.J. Bosser et a
  • Roskov Y.R., Bisby F.A. (†), Zarucchi J.L. & White R.J. (eds) (2013). ILDIS World Database of Legumes (version 10.04, Sep 2012). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Sanjappa,M. 1992. Legumes of India. Dehra Dun: Bishen Singh Mahendra..
  • Syntype: Gray, A. 1854. U.S. Explor. Exped. 15: 480.
  • Wagner,W.L. et al. 1990. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawaii, Vol.1.
  • Whitesell, C. D. Acacia koa A. Gray, Koa. In Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, tech. coords. 1990. Silvics of North America: Vol. 2. Hardwoods. Agriculture Handbook 654. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. Available online from And references therein.
    1. Anonymous. 1856. The influence of the cattle on the climate  of Waimea and Kawaihae, Hawaii. Sandwich Island Monthly  Magazine 1(2):4-47.
    3. Aragaki, M., F. F. Laemmlen, and W. T. Nishijima. 1972.  Collar root rot of koa caused by Calonectria crotalaria.  Plant Disease Reporter 56(1):73-74.
    5. Atchison, E. 1948. Studies on the Leguminosae. II.  Cytogeography of Acacia (Tourn.) L. American Journal  of Botany 35(10):651-655.
    7. Baldwin, B. D. 1911. Letter to A. Homer. Hawaiian Planters'  Record 6(1):72-73.
    9. Baldwin, P. H., and G. 0. Fagerlund. 1943. The effect of  cattle grazing on koa reproduction in Hawaii National Park.  Ecology 24(1):115-122.
    11. Bega, R. V. 1979. Heart and root rot fungi (Phaeolos  schweinitzii, Polyporus sulphureus, Pleurotus ostreatus)  associated with deterioration of Acacia koa on  the island of Hawaii. Plant Disease Reporter 63(8):682-684.
    13. Blumenstock, David I., and Saul Price. 1974. The climate of  the States-Hawaii. In Climates of the States, vol.  II. Western States including Alaska and Hawaii. p.614-635.  National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Water  Information Center, Port Washington, NY.
    15. Brewbaker, James L. 1977. Acacia koa project. Final  report. Cooperative Project 21-191. University of Hawaii and  USDA Forest Service, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry,  Honolulu. 6 p.
    17. Bryan, L. W. 1929. Reforesting with koa by the seedspot  method. Hawaii Forester and Agriculturist 26(3):136-137.
    19. Bryan, L. W. 1947. Twenty-five years of forestry work on the  island of Hawaii. Hawaiian Planters' Record 51(1):1-80.
    21. Bryan, W. A. 1915. Natural history of Hawaii, book one.  Honolulu Gazette Co., Ltd. 596 p.
    23. Burgan, Robert E., Wesley H. C. Wong, Jr., Roger G. Skolmen,  and Herbert L. Wick. 1971. Guide to log defect indicators in  koa and 'ohi'a-preliminary rules for volume deductions. USDA  Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range  Experiment Station, Berkeley, CA. 6 p.
    25. Carlson, N. K., and L. W. Bryan. 1959. Hawaiian timber for  the coming generation. Trustees of Bernice P. Bishop Estate,  Honolulu. 112 p
    27. Carr, G. D. 1978. Chromosome numbers of Hawaiian flowering  plants and the significance of cytology in selected taxa.  American Journal of Botany 62(2):236-242.
    29. Conrad, C. Eugene, Paul G. Scowcroft, Richard C. Wass, and  Donovan S. Goo. 1988. Reforestation research in Hakalau  National Wildlife Refuge. In 1988 Transactions of  the Western Section of the Wildlife Society 24:80-86.
    31. Cooray, Ranjit G. 1974. Stand structure of a montane rain  forest on Mauna Loa, Hawaii. U.S. International Biological  Program, Island Ecosystems Integrated Research Program,  Technical Report 44. University of Hawaii, Department of  Botany, Honolulu. 98 p.
    33. Crosby, William, and E. Y. Yosaka. 1955. Vegetation. In  Soil survey of the Territory of Hawaii. p. 2884. U.S.  Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, Series  1939. Washington, DC.
    35. Davis, C. J. 1955. Some recent Lepidopterous outbreaks on  the island of Hawaii. Proceedings Hawaiian Entomological  Society 15(3):401-403.
    37. Degener, 0.1930. Ferns and flowering plants of Hawaii  National Park. Star-Bulletin Limited, Honolulu, HI. 312 p.
    39. Degener, 0., and I. Degener. 1971. Postscripts and notes  about Acacia koa on Lanai. Hawaiian Botanical  Society Newsletter 10:27-28.
    41. Forbes, C. N. 1914. Plant succession on lava. Mid-Pacific  Magazine 7(4):361-365.
    43. Fullaway, D. T. 1961. Forest insects in Hawaii. Proceedings  Hawaiian Entomological Society 17(3):399-401.
    45. Gardner, D. E. 1978. Koa rust caused by Uromyces koae,  in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Plant Disease  Reporter 62(11):957-961
    47. Gardner, Donald E. 1980. Acacia kon seedling wilt  caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. koae, f.  sp. nov. (New taxa). AmericanPhytopathological Society.  Phytopathology 70(7):594-597.
    49. Gardner, Donald E., and Charles S. Hodges. 1985. Spore  surface morphology of Hawaiian Acacia rust fungi.  The New York Botanical Garden. Mycologia 77(4):575-586.
    51. Hall, W. L. 1904. The forests of the Hawaiian Islands.  Hawaii Forester and Agriculturist 1(4):84-102.
    53. Hansen, D. H. 1986. Water relations of compound leaves and  phyllodes in Acacia koa var. latifolia. Plant,  Cell and Environment 9:439-445.
    55. Hathaway, W. 1952. Composition of certain native dry  forests: Mokuleia, Oahu, Territory of Hawaii. Ecological  Monographs 22:153-168.
    57. Hillebrand, William F. 1888. Flora of the Hawaiian Islands:  a description of their phanerogams and vascular cryptogams.  W. F. Hillebrand, Publisher, Heidelberg. 673 p.
    59. Hodges, Charles S. 1981. Forest protection research needs.  In Proceedings Hawaii Wildlife Conference. October  2-4, 1980. Moving forestry and wildlife into the '80s. USDA  Forest Service. p. 3-39.
    61. Hodges, Charles S., and Donald E. Gardner. 1982. Rusts of  Acacia in Hawaii. Phytopathology 72:965. (Abstract)
    63. Hodges, Charles S., Jr., and Donald E. Gardner. 1984.  Hawaiian forest fungi IV. Rusts on endemic Acacia species.  Mycologia 76(2):332-349.
    65. Hosmer, R. 5. 1904. Report of the Superintendent of  Forestry. Hawaii Forester and Agriculturist 1(11):313-318.
    67. Judd, C. 5. 1916. Koa suitable for artificial reforestation.  Hawaii Forester and Agriculturist 13(2):56.
    69. Judd, C. S. 1918. Working plan for reforesting areas for the  conservation of water prepared by the Division of Forestry.  Hawaii Planter's Record 18(2):20-213.
    71. Judd, C. S. 1918. Forestry as applied in Hawaii. Hawaii  Forester and Agriculturist 15(5):117-133.
    73. Judd, C. 5. 1920. The koa tree. Hawaii Forester and  Agriculturist 17(2):30-35.
    75. Judd, C. S. 1924. The Hilo Forest Reserve. Hawaii Forester  and Agriculturist 18(8):170-172.
    77. Judd, C. 8.1924. Forestry for water conservation. Hawaii  Forester and Agriculturist 21(3):9-102.
    79. Judd, C. 5. 1927. Factors deleterious to the Hawaiian  forests. Hawaii Forester and Agriculturist 24(2):47-53.
    81. Judd, C. S. 1935. Koa reproduction after fire. Journal of  Forestry 33(2):176.
    83. Kliejunas, J. T. 1979. Effects of Phytophthora cinnamomi  on some endemic and exotic plant species in Hawaii in  relation to soil type. University of Hawaii, Hawaii  Agricultural Experiment Station, Hilo, USA. Plant Disease  Reporter 63(7):602-606.
    85. Kraebel, C. J. 1922. Report of Assistant Superintendent of  Forestry. Hawaii Forester and Agriculturist 19(12):277-279.
    87. Laemmlen, F. F., and R. V. Bega. 1972. Decline of ohia and  koa forests in Hawaii. Phytopathology 62:770. (Abstract)
    89. Lamoureux, Charles H. 1971. Some botanical observations on  koa. Hawaiian Botanical Society Newsletter 10(1):1-7.
    91. Lamoureux, Charles H., Dieter Mueller-Dombois, and K. W.  Bridges. 1981. Trees. In Island ecosystems  biological organization in selected Hawaiian communities.  p.391-407. Hutchinson Ross, Stroudsburg, PA.
    93. Leeper, J. R., and J. W. Beardsley, Jr. 1976. The biological  control of Psylla uncatoides (Ferris & Klyver)  (Homoptera: Psyllidae) on Hawaii. Proceedings Hawaiian  Entomological Society 22:307-321.
    95. MacCaughey, Vaughn. 1917. Vegetation of Hawaiian lava flows.  Botanical Gazette 64(5):386-420.
    97. MacCaughey, Vaughn. 1920. Hawaii's tapestry forests.  Botanical Gazette 70(2):137-140.
    99. Metcalf, Melvin E., Robert E. Nelson, Edwin Q. P. Petteys,  and John M. Berger. 1978. Hawaii's timber resources-1970.  USDA Forest Service, Resource Bulletin PSW-15. Pacific  Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Berkeley, CA.  20 p.
    101. Mueller-Dombois, Dieter. 1967. Ecological relations in the  alpine and subalpine vegetation on Mauna Loa, Hawaii. The  Journal of the Indian Botanical Society 96(4):403-411.
    103. Mueller-Dombois, Dieter. 1981. Understanding Hawaiian forest  ecosystems: the key to biological conservation. In  Island ecosystems biological organization in selected  Hawaiian communities. p.502-520. Mueller-Dombois, D., Kent  Bridges, and Hampton L. Carson, eds., Hutchinson Ross,  Stroudsburg, PA.
    105. Mueller-Dombois, Dieter, and F. G. Howarth. 1981. Niche and  life-integration in island communities. In Island  ecosystems biological organization in selected Hawaiian  communities. p. 337-364. Mueller-Dombois, D., Kent W.  Bridges, and Hampton L. Carson, eds. Hutchinson Ross,  Stroudsburg, PA.
    107. Nelson, Robert E., and P. R. Wheeler. 1963. Forest resources  in Hawaii. Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources  in cooperation with U.S. Forest Service, Pacific Southwest  Forest and Range Experiment Station, Honolulu, HI. 48 p.
    109. Nishijima, W. T., and M. Aragaki. 1975. Shoot blights of  ohia and koa caused by Calonectria theae. Plant  Disease Reporter 59(11):883-85.
    111. Pardo, Richard. 1978. The AFA national register of big  trees. American Forests 84(4):17-45.
    113. Peerally, A. 1974. Calonectria crotalariae (conidial  state: Cylindrocladium crotalariae). CMI  Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria 429.  Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew, Surrey, England.
    115. Pemberton, C. E., and F. X. Williams. 1938. Some insect and  other animal pests in Hawaii not under satisfactory  biological control. Hawaii Planter's Record 42(3):211-229.
    117. Perkins, R. C. L. 1912. Notes on forest insects. Hawaii  Planter's Record 6(5):254-258.
    119. Pickford, Gerald D. 1962. Opportunities for timber  production in Hawaii. USDA Forest Service, Miscellaneous  Paper 67. Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment  Station, Berkeley, CA. 11 p.
    121. Raabe, R. D., and E. E. Trujillo. 1963. Armillaria  mellea in Hawaii. Plant Disease Reporter 47:776.
    123. Rock, J. F. 1913. Indigenous trees of the Hawaiian Islands.  Published under patronage. Honolulu, Territory of Hawaii.  518 p.
    125. Rock, J. F. 1920. The leguminous plants of Hawaii. Hawaiian  Sugar Planters' Association, Honolulu. 234 p.
    127. Russ, G. W. 1929. A study of natural regeneration in some  introduced species of trees. Hawaii Forester and  Agriculturist 26(3):117-124.
    129. Sakai, Howard F. 1988. Avian response to mechanical clearing  of a native rainforest in Hawaii. The Condor 90:339-348.
    131. Scott, J. M., S. Mountainspring, F. L. Ramsey, and C. B.  Kepler. 1986. Forest bird communities of the Hawaiian  Islands: their dynamics, ecology, and conservation. Studies  in Avian Biology 9:1-431.
    133. Scowcroft, Paul G. 1971. Koa-monarch of Hawaiian forests.  Hawaiian Botanical Society Newsletter 10:23-26.
    135. Scowcroft, Paul G. 1986. Fine litterfall and leaf  decomposition in a montane koa-ohia rain forest. In Proceedings  Sixth Conference in Natural Sciences, June 10-13, 1986,  Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, HI. p. 6-82.
    137. Scowcroft, Paul G., and Robert Hobdy. 1987. Recovery of  goat-damaged vegetation in an insular tropical montane  forest. Biotropica 19(3):208-215.
    139. Scowcroft, Paul G., and Robert E. Nelson. 1976. Disturbance  during logging stimulates regeneration of koa. USDA Forest  Service, Research Note PSW-306. Pacific Southwest Forest and  Range Experiment Station, Berkeley, CA. 7p.
    141. Scowcroft, Paul G., and Howard F. Sakai. 1984. Stripping of  Acacia koa bark by rats on Hawaii and Maui. Pacific  Science 38(1):80-86
    143. Scowcroft, Paul G., and John D. Stein. 1986. Stimulating  growth of stagnated Acacia koa by thinning and  fertilizing. USDA Forest Service, Research Note PSW-380.  Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station,  Berkeley, CA. 8p.
    145. Scowcroft, Paul G., and Hulton B. Wood. 1976. Reproduction  of Acacia koa after fire. Pacific Science  30(2):177-186.
    147. Skolmen, Roger G. 1968. Wood of koa and of black walnut  similar in most properties. USDA Forest Service, Research  Note PSW-164. Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment  Station, Berkeley, CA. 4p.
    149. Skolmen, Roger G. 1974. Some woods of  and uses of 16 commercial species. USDA Forest Service,  General Technical Report P8W-S. Pacific Southwest Forest and  Range Experiment Station, Berkeley, CA. 30p.
    151. Skolmen, Roger G. 1978. Vegetative propagation of Acacia  koa Gray. In Proceedings, Second Conference in  Natural Sciences. p.260-273. C. W. Smith, ed. Hawaii  Volcanoes National Park, HI. University of Hawaii, Honolulu.
    153. Skolmen, Roger G. 1979. Koa timber management. Paper  presented at the Hawaii forestry conference, Kahului, Maui,  Hawaii, October 1979.24p.
    155. Skolmen, Roger G. 1980. Plantings on the forest reserves of  Hawaii 1910-1960. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest  Forest and Range Experiment Station, Berkeley, CA. 441 p.
    157. Skolmen, Roger G. 1986. Acacia (Acacia koa Gray).  In Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry. Vol.1:  Trees 1. Y.P.S. Bajaj, ed. Springer-Verlage, New York,  Heidelberg. 515 p.
    159. Skolmen, Roger G., and David M. Fujii. 1980. Growth and  development of a pure stand of Acacia koa at  Keauhou-Kilauea. In Proceedings, Third Conference in  Natural Sciences. p.301-310. C. W. Smith, ed. Hawaii  Volcanoes National Park, HI. University of Hawaii, Honolulu.
    161. Skolmen, Roger G., and Marion 0. Mapes. 1976. Acacia koa  Gray plantlets from somatic callus tissue. Journal of  Heredity 67(2):11-115.
    163. Skolmen, Roger G., and Marion 0. Mapes. 1978. Aftercare  procedures required for field survival of tissue culture  propagated Acacia koa. Combined Proceedings. International  Plant Propagators' Society 28:15-164.
    165. Spatz, Gunter. 1973. Some findings on vegetative and sexual  reproduction of koa. U.S. International Biological Program,  Island Ecosystems Integrated Research Program, Ecosystems  Analysis Studies, Technical Report 17. University of Hawaii,  Department of Botany, Honolulu. 45p.
    167. Spatz, G., and D. Mueller-Dombois. 1973. The influence of  feral goats on koa tree reproduction in Hawaii Volcanoes  National Park. Ecology (Durham) 544:870-876.
    169. Stein, John D. 1983. Insects associated with Acacia koa  seed in Hawaii. Environmental Entomology 12(2):299-302.
    171. Stein, John D. 1983. The biology, host range, parasites, and  hyperparasites of koa seeds insects in Hawaii: A review.  Proceedings, Hawaiian Entomological Society 24(2(3):317-326.
    173. Stein, John D. 1983. Insects infesting Acacia koa  (Leguminosae) and Metrosideros polymorpha (Myrtaceae)  in Hawaii: annotated list. In Proceedings, Hawaiian  Entomological Society 24 (2/3):305-316. 27
    175. Stein, John D., and Paul G. Scowcroft. 1984. Growth and  refoliation of koa trees infested by the koa moth Scotorythra  paludicola (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). Pacific Science  38(4):333-339.
    177. St. John, Harold. 1973. List and summary of the flowering  plants in the Hawaiian Islands. Pacific Tropical Botanical  Garden Memoir 1. Kauai.
    179. St. John, Harold. 1979. Classification of Acacia koa  and relatives (Leguminosae). Hawaiian Plant Studies 93.  Pacific Science 33(4):357-367.
    181. Swezey, 0. H. 1919. Cause of the scarcity of seeds of the  koa tree. Hawaiian Planters' Record 21(2):102-105.
    183. Swezey, 0. H. 1925. The insect fauna of trees and plants as  an index of their endemicity and relative antiquity in the  Hawaiian Islands. Proceedings Hawaiian Entomological Society  6(1):195-209.
    185. Swezey, 0. H. 1954. Forest entomology in Hawaii. Bernice P.  Bishop Museum, Special Publication 44. Honolulu. 266 p.
    187. Telfer, Thomas C. 1988. Status of black-tailed deer on  Kauai. Transactions of Western Section of the Wildlife  Society 24:53-60.
    189. Vassal, J. 1969. A propos des Acacia Heterophylla et  Kon. Bulletin de la Société d'Histoire  Naturelle de Toulouse 105:443-47.
    191. Vogl, J. 1969. The role of fire in the evolution of the  Hawaiian flora and vegetation. In Proceedings of the  Ninth Annual Timber Fire Ecology Conference, April 10-11,  1969, Tallahassee, FL. p.5-60.
    193. Walters, Gerald A., and Duane P. Bartholomew. 1984. Acacia  koa leaves and phyllodes: gas exchange, morphological,  anatomical, and biochemical characteristics. Botanical  Gazette 145(3):351-357.
    195. Whitesell, Craig D. 1964. Silvical characteristics of koa  (Acacia koa) Gray. USDA Forest Service, Research  Paper PSW-16. Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment  Station, Berkeley, CA. 12 p.
    197. Whitesell, Craig D. 1974. Acacia Mill. In Seeds  of woody plants in the United States. p. 184-186. C. S.  Schopmeyer, tech. coord. U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Agriculture Handbook 654. Washington, DC.
    199. Whitesell, Craig D. 1976. Underplanting trials in ohia rain  forests. USDA Forest Service, Research Note PSW-319. Pacific  Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Berkeley, CA.  5 p.
    201. Whitesell, Craig D., and Myron 0. Isherwood, Jr. 1971.  Adaptability of 14 tree species to two Hydrol Humic Latosol  soils in Hawaii. USDA Forest Service, Research Note PSW-236.  Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station,  Berkeley, CA. 5 p.
    203. Wick, Herbert L. 1970. Lignin staining: a limited success in  identifying koa growth rings. USDA Forest Service Research  Note PSW-205. Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment  Station, Berkeley, CA. 3 p.
    205. Wood, Hulton B., Robert A. Merriam, and Thomas H. Schubert.  1969. Vegetation recovering: little erosion on Hanalei  watershed after fire. USDA Forest Service, Research Note  PSW-191. Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment  Station, Berkeley, CA. 5 p.
    207. Yoneyama, Tom. 1988. Knock on wood. Hawaii Business  34(5):43-46.
    209. Zimmerman, E. C. 1958. Insects of Hawaii: Macrolepidoptera.  University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu. 542 p.


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