Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Tree. Leaves 1-pinnate, with 3-5 alternately-arranged leaflets; leaflets broadly ovate to subcircular; apex acuminate. Flowers small, creamy-white, turning yellowish.
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Miscellaneous Details

Notes: Cultivated for timber
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Distribution

Worldwide distribution

SE Asia
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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Maharashtra: Common throughout
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Distribution: Pakistan; India; Sikkim; Afghanistan; Persia; Iraq.
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A native of tropical Himalaya (Kashmir to Sikkim), Assam, Bengal, but cultivated in tropical to subtropical Africa, W. Asia.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

Perennial, Shrubs, Vines, twining, climbing, Woody throughout, Nodules present, Stems erect or ascending, Stems greater than 2 m tall, Stems solid, Stems or young twigs glabrous or sparsely glabrate, Leaves alternate, Leaves petiolate, Stipules inconspicuous, absent, or caducous, Stipules deciduous, Stipule s free, Leaves compound, Leaves palmately 5-11 foliate, Leaves odd pinnate, Leaf or leaflet margins entire, Leaflets opposite, Leaflets 3, Leaflets 5-9, Leaves glabrous or nearly so, Inflorescence panicles, Inflorescence axillary, Bracts very small, absent or caducous, Flowers zygomorphic, Calyx 5-lobed, Calyx glabrous, Petals separate, Corolla papilionaceous, Petals clawed, Banner petal suborbicular, broadly rounded, Wing petals narrow, oblanceolate to oblong, Wing petals auriculate, Keel petals auriculate, spurred, or gibbous, Keel tips obtuse or rounded, not beaked, Keel petals fused on sides or at tip, Stamens 9-10, Stamens diadelphous, 9 united, 1 free, Filaments glabrous, Style terete, Fruit a legume, Fruit stipitate, Fruit unilocular, Fruit indehiscent, Fruits winged, carinate, or samaroid, Fruit exserted from calyx, Fruit glabrous or glabrate, Fruit 1-seeded, Fruit 2-seeded, Fruit 3-10 seeded, Seeds reniform, Seed surface smooth, Seeds olive, brown, or black, Dalbergia sissoo Perennial, Trees, Woody throughout, Nodules present, Stems erect or ascending, Stems greater than 2 m tall, Stems solid, Stems or young twigs glabrous or sparsely glabrate, Leaves alternate, Leaves petiolate, Stipules inconspicuous, absent, or caducous, Stipules deciduous, Stipules free, Leaves compound, Leaves odd pinnate, Leaf or leaflet margins entire, Leaflets alternate or subopposite, Leaflets 3, Leaflets 5-9, Leaves glabrous or nearly so, Inflorescence panicles, Inflorescence axillary, Bracts very small, absent or caducous, Flowers zygomorphic, Calyx 5-lobed, Calyx glabrous, Petals separate, Corolla papilionaceous, Petals clawed, Petals ochroleucous, cream colored, Petals pinkish to rose, Banner petal suborbicular, broadly rounded, Wing petals narrow, oblanceolate to oblong, Wing petals auriculate, Keel petals auriculate, spurred, or gibbous, Keel tips obtuse or rounded, not beaked, Keel petals fused on sides or at tip, Stamens 9-10 , Stamens diadelphous, 9 united, 1 free, Filaments glabrous, Style terete, Fruit a legume, Fruit stipitate, Fruit unilocular, Fruit indehiscent, Fruit elongate, straight, Fruit oblong or ellipsoidal, Fruits winged, carinate, or samaroid, Fruit coriaceous or becoming woody, Fruit exserted from calyx, Fruit glabrous or glabrate, Fruit 1-seeded, Fruit 2-seeded, Fruit 3-10 seeded, Seeds reniform, Seed surface smooth, Seeds olive, brown, or black.
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Dr. David Bogler

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Description

Tree with rough bark and mainly longitudinal furrows, young branch pubescent. Leaf imparipinnate, rachis c. 3.7-7.5 cm long; leaflets 3-5, c. 3.5-6.5 cm long, broadly ovate or suborbicular, acuminate, glabrescent, petiolule c. 5-8 mm long; stipules c. 5 mm long. Inflorescence an axillary panicle, composed of several short spikes with sessile to subsessile flowers. Bract small, pubescent, caducous. Calyx c. 5 mm long, teeth ciliate, unequal, shorter than the tube. Corolla yellowish white. Stamens 9, monadelphous, tube slit on the upper side only, anthers uniform. Ovary pubescent, 2-4-ovulate, style glabrous, stigma capitate. Fruit c. 3.7-10 cm long, c. 7.0-13 mm broad, strap-shaped, glabrous, 1-4-seeded. Seed flattened.
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Elevation Range

200-1400 m
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

Habit: Tree
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Ecology

Population Biology

Frequency

Rare
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flower/Fruit

Fl. Per.: March-May.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Dalbergia sissoo

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Dalbergia sissoo

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 4
Specimens with Barcodes: 21
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Wikipedia

Dalbergia sissoo

"Indian rosewood" redirects here. Indian rosewood may also refer to Dalbergia latifolia.

Dalbergia sissoo, known commonly as Indian Rosewood, is an evergreen rosewood tree, also known as sisu, sheesham, tahli, Tali and also Irugudujava. It is native to the Indian Subcontinent and Southern Iran. In Persian, it is called Jag. It is the state tree of Punjab state (India) and the provincial tree of Punjab province (Pakistan). It is primarily found growing along river banks below 900 metres (3,000 ft) elevation, but can range naturally up to 1,300 m (4,300 ft). The temperature in its native range averages 10–40 °C (50–104 °F), but varies from just below freezing to nearly 50 °C (122 °F). It can withstand average annual rainfall up to 2,000 millimetres (79 in) and droughts of 3–4 months. Soils range from pure sand and gravel to rich alluvium of river banks; shisham can grow in slightly saline soils. Seedlings are intolerant of shade.

Timber[edit]

Sheesham wood

Shisham is best known internationally as a premier timber species of the rosewood genus, but is also used as fuel wood and for shade and shelter. With its multiple products and tolerance of light frosts and long dry seasons, this species deserves greater consideration for tree farming, reforestation and agro forestry applications. After teak, it is the most important cultivated timber tree of Bihar, which is the largest producer of shisham timber in India. In Bihar, the tree is planted on roadsides, along canals and as a shade tree for tea plantations. It is also commonly planted in southern Indian cities like Bangalore as a street tree.

Sheesham is usually dried up before being used in furniture manufacturing, a process commonly known as Seasoning. Locally Sheesham is left in wide open areas to dry up under the sun for about 6 months. Commercially Sheesham is dried up in closed chambers with hot air circulation for about 7 days to 15 days depending on weather conditions. The ideal moisture level is supposed to be 5-6 % for thinner pieces and upto 11% for thicker ones, depending on use. Anything low then this is supposed to be harmful for Sheesham made product as it may cause sudden and sea cracks anytime and anywhere in the product, leading to its disorientation.

Shisham is among the finest cabinet and veneer timbers. It is the wood from which 'Kartaals', the Rajasthani percussion instrument, are often made. In addition to musical instruments, it is used for plywood, agricultural tools, carvings, boats, skis, flooring, etc.

The heartwood is golden to dark brown; the sapwood, white to pale brownish white. The heartwood is extremely durable (the specific gravity is 0.7 – 0.8) and is very resistant to dry-wood termites; but the sapwood is readily attacked by fungi and borers. Dalbergia sissoo is known to contain the neoflavonoid dalbergichromene in its stem-bark and heartwood.[1]

Fuel wood[edit]

The calorific value of both the sapwood and heartwood is 'excellent', being reported to be 4,908 kcal/kg and 5,181 kcal/kg respectively. As a fuel wood it is grown on a 10 to 15-year rotation. The tree has excellent coppicing ability, although a loss of vigor after two or three rotations has been reported. Shisham wood makes excellent charcoal for heating and cooking.

Botany[edit]

A Sheesham tree growing in Pakistan.

D. sissoo is a medium to large deciduous tree with a light crown which reproduces by seeds and suckers. It can grow up to a maximum of 25 m (82 ft) in height and 2 to 3 m (6 ft 7 in to 9 ft 10 in) in diameter, but is usually smaller. Trunks are often crooked when grown in the open. Leaves are leathery, alternate, pinnately compound and about 15 cm (5.9 in) long. Flowers are whitish to pink, fragrant, nearly sessile, up to 1.5 cm (0.59 in) long and in dense clusters 5–10 cm (2.0–3.9 in) in length. Pods are oblong, flat, thin, strap-like 4–8 cm (1.6–3.1 in) long, 1 cm (0.39 in) wide and light brown. They contain 1–5 flat bean-shaped seeds 8–10 mm (0.31–0.39 in) long. They have a long taproot and numerous surface roots which produce suckers. Young shoots are downy and drooping; established stems with light brown to dark gray bark to 2.5 cm (0.98 in) thick, shed in narrow strips; large upper branches support a spreading crown.

Propagation[edit]

Propagation takes place most commonly by root suckers and also by seeds. The seeds remain viable for only a few months. Seeds should be soaked in water for 48 hours before sowing and 60% – 80% germination can be expected in 1–3 weeks. Seedlings require partial sun or full sun.

Toxicology[edit]

Ethanolic extract of the fruits of Dalbergia sissoo exhibited molluscicide effect against eggs of the freshwater snail Biomphalaria pfeifferi.[2]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ S. K. Mukerjee, T. Saroja & T. R. Seshadri (1971). "Dalbergichromene : a new neoflavonoid from stem-bark and heartwood of Dalbergia sissoo". Tetrahedron 27 (4): 799–803. doi:10.1016/S0040-4020(01)92474-3. 
  2. ^ Adenusi A. A. & Odaibo A. B. (2009). "Effects of varying concentrations of the crude aqueous and ethanolic". African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative medicines 6(2). abstract, PDF.
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Simsapa tree

The Simsapa tree (Pali: siṃsapā) is mentioned in ancient Buddhist discourses traditionally believed to have been delivered 2,500 years ago. The tree has been identified as either Dalbergia sissoo,[1] a rosewood tree common to India and southeast Asia, or Amherstia nobilis, another South Asian tree, of the family Caesalpiniaceae.

Contents

Buddhist scriptural references

In Buddhism's Pali Canon,[2] there is a discourse entitled, "The Simsapa Grove" (SN 56.31). This discourse is described as having been delivered by the Buddha to monks while dwelling beneath a simsapa grove in the city of Kosambi. In this discourse, the Buddha compares a few simsapa leaves in his hand with the number of simsapa leaves overhead in the grove to illustrate what he teaches (in particular, the Four Noble Truths) and what he does not teach (things unrelated to the holy life).[3]

Elsewhere in the Pali Canon, samsapa groves are mentioned in the "Payasi Sutta" (DN 23)[4] and in the "Hatthaka Discourse" (AN 3.34).[5][6]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ For example, Rhys Davids & Stede (1921-25), p. 708, entry for "Siŋsapā" (retrieved 17 Nov 2008 from "U. Chicago" at http://dsal.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.4:1:104.pali) associates the simsapa tree with "Dalbergia sisu."
  2. ^ The Pali Canon is the main scriptural source for Theravada Buddhism and is at least nominally incorporated in the canons of other branches of Buddhism as well.
  3. ^ Bodhi (2000), pp. 1857-58; Thanissaro (1997); and, Walshe (1985), sutta 68. Note that in an endnote to this sutta (n. 313), Walshe states that this tree is "also known as the Asoka tree."
  4. ^ Walshe (1987), p. 351. This discourse is said to have been given in Kosala.
  5. ^ Thanissaro (1999). This discourse is said to have been given near Alavi.
  6. ^ For both canonical and post-canonical references, see Rhys Davids & Stede (1921-25), p. 708, entry for "Siŋsapā" (retrieved 17 Nov 2008 from "U. Chicago" at http://dsal.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.4:1:104.pali).

Sources

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Notes

Comments

Very widely planted in the plains along the roadsides, canals and fields and in the forest plantations. The wood which is hard, heavy and durable, is very important. It is commonly used for furniture, carts, boats, wheels etc.
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