Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

General: It is a small tree that grows twenty to thirty feet high, twenty to thirty-five feet wide; with wide-spreading, horizontal, thorny branches. Leaves are broadest above or near the middle, thick, leathery, shiny dark green above, usually not lobed, and smooth. Flowers ranging from white to red are produced in clusters. Fruits are broadest above the middle or rounded, dull red or green.

Distribution: Cockspur hawthorn grows from southern Quebec, and Ontario to northern Louisiana, Alabama and northwestern Georgia, and west to Kansas.

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Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Adaptation

Although Cockspur hawthorn generally requires no special soil requirements, it prefers a moist, well-drained, slightly acid soils, and full sunlight. It is adaptable to poor soils; various soil pHs, compacted soils, drought, heat and winter salt spray. Adapted to USDA Hardiness Zone 4.

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Physical Description

Type Information

Syntype for Crataegus regalis Beadle
Catalog Number: US 969459
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): ex herb. Biltmore
Year Collected: 1899
Locality: Rome., Floyd, Georgia, United States, North America
  • Syntype: Beadle, C. D. 1902. Biltmore Bot. Stud. 1: 134.; Phipps, J. B. 2006. Novon. 16: 385.
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Holotype for Crataegus signata Beadle
Catalog Number: US 969335
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): C. T. Mohr
Locality: Mobile., Mobile, Alabama, United States, North America
  • Holotype: Beadle, C. D. 1901. Biltmore Bot. Stud. 1: 42.
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Possible syntype for Crataegus arduennae Sarg.
Catalog Number: US 493982
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): ex herb. E.J. Hill
Year Collected: 1902
Locality: Illinois, United States, North America
  • Possible syntype: Sargent, C. S. 1903. Bot. Gaz. 35 (6): 377.
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Type collection for Crataegus algens Beadle
Catalog Number: US 969304
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): ex herb. Biltmore
Year Collected: 1901
Locality: Biltmore., Buncombe, North Carolina, United States, North America
  • Type collection: Beadle, C. D. 1902. Biltmore Bot. Stud. 1: 135.
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Type collection for Crataegus algens Beadle
Catalog Number: US 969303
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): ex herb. Biltmore
Year Collected: 1901
Locality: Biltmore., Buncombe, North Carolina, United States, North America
  • Type collection: Beadle, C. D. 1902. Biltmore Bot. Stud. 1: 135.
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Syntype for Crataegus denaria Beadle
Catalog Number: US 969337
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): ex herb. Biltmore
Locality: Columbus., Lowndes, Mississippi, United States, North America
  • Syntype: Beadle, C. D. 1902. Biltmore Bot. Stud. 1: 131.
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Syntype for Crataegus denaria Beadle
Catalog Number: US 969336
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): ex herb. Biltmore
Locality: Columbus., Lowndes, Mississippi, United States, North America
  • Syntype: Beadle, C. D. 1902. Biltmore Bot. Stud. 1: 131.
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Isotype for Crataegus subpilosa Sarg.
Catalog Number: US 1117969
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): E. J. Palmer
Year Collected: 1914
Locality: Near Eureka Springs., Carroll, Arkansas, United States, North America
  • Isotype: Sargent, C. S. 1921. J. Arnold Arbor. 3: 6.
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Syntype for Crataegus palmeri Sarg.
Catalog Number: US 2216279
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Verified from the card file of type specimens
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): E. J. Palmer
Year Collected: 1901
Locality: Missouri, United States, North America
  • Syntype: Sargent, C. S. 1903. Trees and Shrubs. 1: 57.
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Lectotype for Crataegus regalis Beadle
Catalog Number: US 969458
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): C. Beadle
Year Collected: 1900
Locality: Rome., Floyd, Georgia, United States, North America
  • Lectotype: Beadle, C. D. 1902. Biltmore Bot. Stud. 1: 134.; Phipps, J. B. 2006. Novon. 16: 385.
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Isotype for Crataegus shinnersii Kruschke
Catalog Number: US 2865437
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): E. Kruschke
Year Collected: 1954
Locality: S of Hales Corners., Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States, North America
  • Isotype: Kruschke, E. P. 1965. Milwaukee Public Mus. Publ. Bot. 3: 17.
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Isotype for Crataegus shinnersii Kruschke
Catalog Number: US 2865438
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): E. Kruschke
Year Collected: 1954
Locality: S of Hales Corners., Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States, North America
  • Isotype: Kruschke, E. P. 1965. Milwaukee Public Mus. Publ. Bot. 3: 17.
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Ecology

Dispersal

Establishment

Propagation from Seed or Grafting: Cockspur hawthorn can be propagated by seeds or by stem cuttings grafted onto seedling rootstock. Propagation using seeds requires acid scarification for two to three hours followed by three months warm stratification and another three months prechilling. Seeds are planted in drill rows eight to twelve inches apart and covered with 1/4 inch of soil.

Containerized trees should be planted when they are no more than eight feet tall, in the fall or spring.

Grafts are budded on seedling understock in August and September.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Crataegus tenax

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Status

Please consult the PLANTS Web site and your State Department of Natural Resources for this plant’s current status, such as, state noxious status, and wetland indicator values.

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Threats

Pests and potential problems

Cedar hawthorn rust affects the fruit, foliage and stems. Potential pests include leaf blotch minor.

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Management

Cultivars, improved and selected materials (and area of origin)

Consult you local nurseries to choose the right cultivar for your specific landscape. Contact your local Natural Resources Conservation Service (formerly Soil Conservation Service) office for more information. Look in the phone book under ”United States Government.” The Natural Resources Conservation Service will be listed under the subheading “Department of Agriculture.”

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Seedlings develop taproot, thus should not be kept in seedbeds longer than one year. Balled and burlapped trees should be planted in early spring. If transplanted in autumn, amend soil, fertilize, water thoroughly, mulch adequately and avoid winter salt spray. Pruning should be done in the winter or early spring in order to maintain a clear shoot leader on young trees and/or remove the weakest branches to allow more light to pass through. Suckers or stems arising from the roots should be removed when they become noticeable.

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

Erosion Control: Because it tolerates a wide variety of sites, it can be planted to stabilize banks, for shelterbelts, and for erosion control.

Wildlife: It provides excellent cover and nesting sites for many smaller birds. The small fruits are eaten by many birds especially cedar waxwings, fox sparrows, and ruffed grouse; rodents and other smaller birds. White tailed deer and mule deer browse the young twigs and leaves.

Beautification: Excellent in group plantings, deciduous screens, groupings, tall barrier hedge, and seasonal accent tree.

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Wikipedia

Crataegus crus-galli

Crataegus crus-galli is a species of hawthorn known by the common names cockspur hawthorn and cockspur thorn. It is native to eastern North America from Ontario to Texas to Florida, and it is widely used in horticulture.[2][3] This is a small tree growing up to about 10 meters tall and 8 meters wide, rounded in form when young and spreading and flattening as it matures. The leaves are 5 to 6 centimeters long, glossy dark green in color and turning gold to red in the fall. The flowers are white and have a scent generally considered unpleasant. The fruits are small pomes that vary in colour, usually a shade of red.[3] Most wild varieties of the tree are heavily armed in sharp thorns several centimeters long. This species is a popular ornamental tree, especially var. inermis, which lacks thorns. Many other wild forms would be very suitable for landscaping if better known, and yellow-fruited forms exist.[3]

Images[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Phipps, J.B.; Robertson, K.R.; Smith, P.G.; Rohrer, J.R. (1990). A checklist of the subfamily Maloideae (Rosaceae). Canadian Journal of Botany. 68(10): 2209–2269.
  2. ^ a b USDA Plants
  3. ^ a b c Phipps, J.B., O’Kennon, R.J., Lance, R.W. (2003). Hawthorns and medlars. Royal Horticultural Society, Cambridge, U.K. ISBN 0-88192-591-8 ISBN 9780881925913
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Crataegus canbyi

Crataegus canbyi is a hawthorn that is sometimes considered to be a synonym of C. crus-galli.[2]

References and external links[edit]

  1. ^ Phipps, J.B.; Robertson, K.R.; Smith, P.G.; Rohrer, J.R. (1990). A checklist of the subfamily Maloideae (Rosaceae). Canadian Journal of Botany. 68(10): 2209–2269.
  2. ^ USDA Plants Profile


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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Crataegus tenax is recognized separately by Phipps (with 'G4' rank suggested, letter to M. Oldham 12Feb96, but considered a synonym of C. crus-galli by Kartesz (1994 checklist).

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