Ecology

Associations

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Acanthoscelides obtectus feeds within stored seed of Faboideae

Foodplant / sap sucker
Acyrthosiphon pisum sucks sap of live growth (young) of Faboideae

Foodplant / feeds on
Aeolothrips ericae feeds on Faboideae
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / feeds on
Aeolothrips intermedius feeds on flower of Faboideae
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / feeds on
adult of Aeolothrips tenuicornis feeds on live flower of Faboideae

Foodplant / miner
larva of Agromyza nana mines leaf of Faboideae
Other: sole host/prey

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / nest
female of Andrena labialis provisions nest with pollen of Faboideae

Foodplant / nest
female of Andrena similis provisions nest with pollen of Faboideae

Foodplant / nest
female of Andrena wilkella provisions nest with pollen of Faboideae

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Apion ebeninum feeds within stem of Faboideae
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Apion pisi feeds on Faboideae
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Aprosthema melanura grazes on leaf of Faboideae

Foodplant / sap sucker
adult of Berytinus minor sucks sap of Faboideae

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Callosobruchus analis feeds within stored seed of Faboideae

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Callosobruchus chinensis feeds within Faboideae

Foodplant / pathogen
acervulus of Colletotrichum coelomycetous anamorph of Colletotrichum coccodes infects and damages live stem (base) of Faboideae
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / nest
female of Eucera longicornis provisions nest with pollen of Faboideae

Foodplant / nest
female of Eucera nigrescens provisions nest with pollen of Faboideae

Foodplant / feeds on
Globiceps flavomaculatus feeds on fruit (unripe) of Faboideae
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / feeds on
Halticus apterus feeds on Faboideae
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / open feeder
Hypera fuscocinerea grazes on leaf of Faboideae

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Hypera postica grazes on leaf of Faboideae

Foodplant / open feeder
Hypera suspiciosa grazes on leaf of Faboideae

Foodplant / miner
larva of Liriomyza congesta mines leaf of Faboideae
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / miner
larva of Liriomyza strigata mines leaf of Faboideae

Foodplant / open feeder
adult of Longitarsus atricillus grazes on leaf of Faboideae

Foodplant / nest
female of Melitta leporina provisions nest with pollen of Faboideae

Plant / resting place / within
puparium of Ophiomyia curvipalpis may be found in stem of Faboideae

Foodplant / parasite
underground tuber of Orobanche crenata parasitises root of Faboideae

Foodplant / parasite
underground tuber of Orobanche minor parasitises root of Faboideae
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / parasite
underground tuber of Orobanche rapum-genistae parasitises root of Faboideae
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / gall
Rhizobium causes gall of live root of Faboideae

Foodplant / pathogen
buried sclerotium of Sclerotinia trifoliorum infects and damages live plant of Faboideae

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Sitona gemellatus feeds on Faboideae

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Sitona griseus feeds on root of Faboideae

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Sitona humeralis feeds on Faboideae

Foodplant / feeds on
subterranean larva of Sitona lineatus feeds on live root nodule of Faboideae

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Sitona lineellus feeds on Faboideae

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Sitona macularius feeds on Faboideae

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Sitona ononidis feeds on Faboideae

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Sitona sulcifrons feeds on Faboideae

Foodplant / sap sucker
Smynthurodes betae sucks sap of root of Faboideae
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / parasite
amphigenous telium of Uromyces anthyllidis parasitises live leaf of Faboideae

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records: 972
Specimens with Sequences: 902
Specimens with Barcodes: 808
Species: 215
Species With Barcodes: 179
Public Records: 205
Public Species: 82
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Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records: 143
Specimens with Sequences: 94
Specimens with Barcodes: 59
Species: 53
Species With Barcodes: 31
Public Records: 35
Public Species: 16
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Barcode data

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Barcode data

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Wikipedia

Faboideae

The Faboideae are a subfamily of the flowering plant family Fabaceae or Leguminosae. An acceptable alternative name for the subfamily is Papilionoideae, or Papilionaceae when this group of plants is treated as a family.[4]

This subfamily is widely distributed, and members are adapted to a wide variety of environments. Faboideae may be trees, shrubs, or herbaceous plants. Members include the pea, the sweet pea, and the laburnum. The flowers are classically pea-shaped, and root nodulation is very common.

Genera[edit]

The type genus, Faba, is a synonym of Vicia, and is listed here as Vicia.

Systematics[edit]

Modern molecular phylogenetics recommend a clade-based classification of Faboideae as a superior alternative to the traditional tribal classification of Polhill:[5][17][18][19]

Faboideae (Papilionoideae)
ADA clade

Angylocalyceae




Dipterygeae



Amburaneae





Swartzieae

Swartzioids



Atelioids





Cladrastis clade


Meso-Papilionoideae
(=50-Kb inversion clade)

Exostyleae


Genistoids

Ormosieae




Brongniartieae



Leptolobieae


Core genistoids

Camoensieae




Sophoreae




Podalyrieae




Crotalarieae



Genisteae










Vataireoids



Andira clade


Dalbergioids
Amorpheae

Amorphoids



Daleoids



Dalbergieae

Adesmia clade



Dalbergia clade



Pterocarpus clade





Old World clade

Baphieae


NPAAA clade


Hypocalypteae



Mirbelioids






Indigofereae


Millettioids (=phaseoloids, MPA clade)

Barbierieae





Abreae




Millettieae



Diocleae






Kennediinae clade



Desmodieae




Cajaninae clade




Erythrininae clade




Psoraleeae



Phaseolinae clade









Hologalegina (=galegoids)
Robinioids


Sesbanieae



Robinieae




Loteae



IRLC


Hedysareae



Astragaleae




Fabeae











Note: Minor branches have been omitted.

References[edit]

  1. ^ United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) (2003): Germplasm Resources Information NetworkFaboideae. Version of 2003-JAN-17. Retrieved 2010-AUG-07.
  2. ^ "Faboideae at UniProt". Retrieved 2010-08-07. 
  3. ^ "Systema Naturae 2000". Retrieved 2010-08-07. 
  4. ^ McNeill, J.; Barrie, F.R.; Burdet, H.M. et al., eds. (2006), International code of botanical nomenclature (Vienna Code) adopted by the seventeenth International Botanical Congress, Vienna, Austria, July 2005 (electronic ed.), Vienna: International Association for Plant Taxonomy, retrieved 2011-02-20  , Article 19.7
  5. ^ a b Cardoso D, de Queiroz LP, Pennington RT, de Lima HC, Fonty É, Wojciechowski MF, Lavin M. (2012). "Revisiting the phylogeny of papilionoid legumes: new insights from comprehensively sampled early-branching lineages". Am J Bot 99 (12): 1991–2013. doi:10.3732/ajb.1200380. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h Delgado-Salinas A, Thulin M, Pasquet R, Weeden N, Lavin M. (2011). "Vigna (Leguminosae) sensu lato: the names and identities of the American segregate genera". Am J Bot 98 (10): 1694–715. doi:10.3732/ajb.1100069. PMID 21980163. 
  7. ^ a b Boatwright JS, Tilney PM, Van Wyk B-E. (2009). "The generic concept of Lebeckia (Crotalarieae, Fabaceae): reinstatement of the genus Calobota and the new genus Wiborgiella". S Afr J Bot 75 (3): 546–556. doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2009.06.001. 
  8. ^ a b c d e Boatwright JS, Wink M, van Wyk B-E. (2011). "The generic concept of Lotononis (Crotalarieae, Fabaceae): Reinstatement of the genera Euchlora, Leobordea and Listia and the new genus Ezoloba". Taxon 60 (1): 161–77. 
  9. ^ Torke BM, Schaal BA. (2008). "Molecular phylogenetics of the species-rich neotropical genus Swartzia (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae) and related genera of the swartzioid clade". Am J Bot 95 (2): 215–228. doi:10.3732/ajb.95.2.215. 
  10. ^ a b Cardoso D, de Lima HC, Rodrigues RS, de Queiroz LP, Pennington RT, Lavin M. (2012). "The Bowdichia clade of Genistoid legumes: Phylogenetic analysis of combined molecular and morphological data and a recircumscription of Diplotropis". Taxon 61 (5): 1074–1087. 
  11. ^ Hughes CE, Lewis GP, Daza Yomona A, Reynel C. (2004). "Maraniona. A New Dalbergioid Legume Genus (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae) from Peru". Syst Bot 29 (2): 366–374. doi:10.1600/036364404774195557. 
  12. ^ Cardoso D, de Lima HC, de Queiroz, LP. (2013). "Staminodianthus, a new neotropical Genistoid legume genus segregated from Diplotropis". Phytotaxa 110 (1): 1–16. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.110.1.1. 
  13. ^ Lewis GP, Wood JRI, Lavin M. (2012). "Steinbachiella (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae: Dalbergieae), endemic to Bolivia, is reinstated as an accepted genus". Kew Bull 67 (4): 789–796. doi:10.1007/s12225-012-9415-z. 
  14. ^ de Queiroz LP, Lewis GP, Wojciechowski MF. (2010). "Tabaroa, a new genus of Leguminosae tribe Brongniartieae from Brazil". Kew Bull 65 (2): 189–203. doi:10.1007/s12225-010-9202-7. JSTOR 23216080. 
  15. ^ Ireland HE (2007). "Taxonomic changes in the South American genus Bocoa (Leguminosae–Swartzieae): Reinstatement of the name Trischidium, and a synopsis of both genera". Kew Bull 62 (2): 333–350. JSTOR 20443359. 
  16. ^ Thulin M, Lavin M. (2001). "Phylogeny and Biogeography of the Ormocarpum Group (Fabaceae): A New Genus Zygocarpum from the Horn of Africa Region". Syst Bot 26 (2): 299–317. JSTOR 2666709. 
  17. ^ Cardoso D, Pennington RT, de Queiroz LP, Boatwright JS, Van Wykd B-E, Wojciechowskie MF, Lavin M. (2013). "Reconstructing the deep-branching relationships of the papilionoid legumes". S Afr J Bot 89: 58–75. doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2013.05.001. 
  18. ^ Wojciechowskie MF. (2013). "Towards a new classification of Leguminosae: Naming clades using non-Linnaean phylogenetic nomenclature". S. Afr. J. Bot. 89: 85–93. doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2013.06.017. 
  19. ^ LPWG [Legume Phylogeny Working Group] (2013). "Legume phylogeny and classification in the 21st century: progress, prospects and lessons for other species-rich clades". Taxon 62 (2): 217–248. doi:10.12705/622.8. 
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Cladrastis clade

The Cladrastis clade is a monophyletic clade of the flowering plant subfamily Faboideae (or Papilionaceae) that is found in eastern Asia and southern North America.[2][3][4] It is consistently resolved in molecular phylogenies and is sister to the Meso-Papilionoideae.[1][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10] Evidence for the existence of this clade was first proposed based on morphological (floral), cytological, and biochemical evidence.[11][12] It is predicted to have diverged from the other legume lineages 47.4±2.6 million years ago (in the Eocene).[13]

Description[edit]

This clade is composed of three genera: Cladrastis, the monotypic Pickeringia, and Styphnolobium.[8] Fossils of species of Cladrastis and Styphnolobium have been discovered.[14] The name of this clade is informal and is not assumed to have any particular taxonomic rank like the names authorized by the ICBN or the ICPN.[2] The clade is defined as:

"The most inclusive crown clade containing Cladrastis kentukea (Dum. Cours.) Rudd 1971 but not Dermatophyllum secundiflorum (Ortega) Gandhi & Reveal 2011 or Swartzia simplex Spreng. 1825."[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Wojciechowski MF, Lavin M, Sanderson MJ. (2004). "A phylogeny of legumes (Leguminosae) based on analysis of the plastid matK gene resolves many well-supported subclades within the family". Am J Bot 91 (11): 1846–1862. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.11.1846. PMID 21652332. 
  2. ^ a b c d Wojciechowski MF. (2013). "Towards a new classification of Leguminosae: Naming clades using non-Linnaean phylogenetic nomenclature". S Afr J Bot 89: 85–93. doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2013.06.017. 
  3. ^ a b c Cardoso D, Pennington RT, de Queiroz LP, Boatwright JS, Van Wyk B-E, Wojciechowski MF, Lavin M. (2013). "Reconstructing the deep-branching relationships of the papilionoid legumes". S Afr J Bot 89: 58–75. doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2013.05.001. 
  4. ^ a b Cardoso D, de Queiroz LP, Pennington RT, de Lima HC, Fonty É, Wojciechowski MF, Lavin M. (2012). "Revisiting the phylogeny of papilionoid legumes: new insights from comprehensively sampled early-branching lineages". Am J Bot 99 (12): 1991–2013. doi:10.3732/ajb.1200380. 
  5. ^ Doyle JJ, Doyle JL, Ballenger JA, Dickson EE, Kajita T, Ohashi H. (1997). "A phylogeny of the chloroplast gene rbcL in the Leguminosae: taxonomic correlations and insights into the evolution of nodulation". Am J Bot 84 (4): 541–554. doi:10.2307/2446030. PMID 21708606. 
  6. ^ Pennington RT, Lavin M, Ireland H, Klitgaard B, Preston J, Hu J-M. (2001). "Phylogenetic relationships of basal papilionoid legumes based upon sequences of the chloroplast trnL intron". Syst Bot 55 (5): 818–836. doi:10.1043/0363-6445-26.3.537. 
  7. ^ McMahon MM, Sanderson MJ. (2006). "Phylogenetic supermatrix analysis of GenBank sequences from 2228 papilionoid legumes". Syst Biol 99 (12): 1991–2013. doi:10.3732/ajb.1200380. 
  8. ^ a b Wojciechowski MF. (2013). "The origin and phylogenetic relationships of the Californian chaparral ‘paleoendemic’ Pickeringia (Leguminosae)". Syst Bot 38 (1): 132–142. doi:10.1600/036364413X662024. 
  9. ^ LPWG [Legume Phylogeny Working Group] (2013). "Legume phylogeny and classification in the 21st century: progress, prospects and lessons for other species-rich clades". Taxon 62 (2): 217–248. doi:10.12705/622.8. 
  10. ^ Kajita T, Ohashi H, Tateishi Y, Bailey CD, Doyle JJ. (2001). "rbcL and legume phylogeny, with particular reference to Phaseoleae, Millettieae and allies". Syst Bot 26 (3): 515–536. doi:10.1043/0363-6445-26.3.515. JSTOR 3093979. 
  11. ^ Sousa-Sánchez M, Rudd VE. (1993). "Revisión del género Styphnolobium (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae: Sophoreae)" [Revision of the genus Styphnolobium (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae: Sophoreae)]. Ann Missouri Bot Gard 80: 270–283. doi:10.2307/2399827. ISSN 0026-6493. 
  12. ^ Kite GC, Pennington RT. (2003). "Quinolizidine alkaloid status of Styphnolobium and Cladrastis (Leguminosae).". Biochem Syst Ecol 31 (12): 1409–1416. doi:10.1016/S0305-1978(03)00118-2. 
  13. ^ Lavin M, Herendeen PS, Wojciechowski MF. (2005). "Evolutionary rates analysis of Leguminosae implicates a rapid diversification of lineages during the tertiary". Syst Biol 54 (4): 575–94. doi:10.1080/10635150590947131. PMID 16085576. 
  14. ^ Herendeen PS. (1992). "The fossil history of the Leguminosae from the Eocene of southeastern North America". In Herendeen PS, Dilcher DL.. Advances in Legume Systematics, Part 4: The Fossil Record. Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens. pp. 85–160. ISBN 0947643400. 
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Inverted repeat-lacking clade

The Inverted repeat-lacking clade is a monophyletic clade of the flowering plant subfamily Faboideae (or Papilionaceae) that includes the majority of agriculturally-cultivated legumes. It is characterized by the loss of one of the two 25-kb inverted repeats in the plastid genome that are found in most land plants.[5] It is consistently resolved in molecular phylogenies.[1][2][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12] The clade is predicted to have diverged from the other legume lineages 39.0±2.4 million years ago (in the Eocene).[5] It includes several large, temperate genera such as Astragalus L., Hedysarum L., Medicago L., Oxytropis DC., Swainsona Salisb., and Trifolium L..

Description[edit]

This clade is composed of five traditional tribes (Cicereae Alef. 1859, Fabeae Rchb. 1832, Galegeae Dumort. 1827, Hedysareae DC. 1825, Trifolieae Endl. 1830) and several genera of the traditional tribe Millettieae (Afgekia Craib 1927, Callerya Endl. 1843, Endosamara R. Geesink 1984, Sarcodum Lour. 1790, Wisteria Nutt.1818, and possibly Antheroporum Gagnep. 1915).[3] The name of this clade is informal and is not assumed to have any particular taxonomic rank like the names authorized by the ICBN or the ICPN.[3] The clade is defined as:

"The most inclusive crown clade exhibiting the structural mutation in the plastid genome (loss of one copy of the ~25-kb inverted repeat region) homologous with that found in Galega officinalis L. 1753, Glycyrrhiza lepidota Nuttall 1813, and Vicia faba L., where these taxa are extant species included in the crown clade defined by this name."[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Wojciechowski MF, Sanderson MJ, Steele KP, Liston A. (2000). "Molecular phylogeny of the “temperate herbaceous tribes” of papilionoid legumes: a supertree approach". In Herendeen PS, Bruneau A.. Advances in Legume Systematics, Part 9. Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens. pp. 277–298. ISBN 184246017X. 
  2. ^ a b Wojciechowski MF, Lavin M, Sanderson MJ. (2004). "A phylogeny of legumes (Leguminosae) based on analysis of the plastid matK gene resolves many well-supported subclades within the family". Am J Bot 91 (11): 1846–1862. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.11.1846. PMID 21652332. 
  3. ^ a b c d Wojciechowski MF. (2013). "Towards a new classification of Leguminosae: Naming clades using non-Linnaean phylogenetic nomenclature". S Afr J Bot 89: 85–93. doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2013.06.017. 
  4. ^ a b Cardoso D, Pennington RT, de Queiroz LP, Boatwright JS, Van Wyk B-E, Wojciechowski MF, Lavin M. (2013). "Reconstructing the deep-branching relationships of the papilionoid legumes". S Afr J Bot 89: 58–75. doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2013.05.001. 
  5. ^ a b c Lavin M, Doyle JJ, Palmer JD. (1990). "Evolutionary significance of the loss of the chloroplast-DNA inverted repeat in the Leguminosae subfamily Papilionoideae". Evolution 44 (2): 390–402. JSTOR 2409416. 
  6. ^ Liston A. (1995). "Use of the polymerase chain reaction to survey for the loss of the inverted repeat in the legume chloroplast genome". In Crisp MD, Doyle JJ.. Advances in Legume Systematics, Part 7: Phylogeny. Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens. pp. 31–40. ISBN 0947643796. 
  7. ^ Käss E, Wink M. (1996). "Molecular evolution of the Leguminosae: Phylogeny of the three subfamilies based on rbcL-sequences". Biochem Syst Ecol 24 (5): 365–378. doi:10.1016/0305-1978(96)00032-4. 
  8. ^ Sanderson MJ, Wojciechowski MF. (1996). "Diversification rates in a temperate legume clade: are there "so many species" of Astragalus (Fabaceae)?". Am J Bot 83 (11): 1488–1502. JSTOR 2446103. 
  9. ^ Doyle JJ, Doyle JL, Ballenger JA, Dickson EE, Kajita T, Ohashi H. (1997). "A phylogeny of the chloroplast gene rbcL in the Leguminosae: taxonomic correlations and insights into the evolution of nodulation". Am J Bot 84 (4): 541–554. doi:10.2307/2446030. PMID 21708606. 
  10. ^ Pennington RT, Lavin M, Ireland H, Klitgaard B, Preston J, Hu J-M. (2001). "Phylogenetic relationships of basal papilionoid legumes based upon sequences of the chloroplast trnL intron". Syst Bot 55 (5): 818–836. doi:10.1043/0363-6445-26.3.537. 
  11. ^ McMahon MM, Sanderson MJ. (2006). "Phylogenetic supermatrix analysis of GenBank sequences from 2228 papilionoid legumes". Syst Biol 99 (12): 1991–2013. doi:10.3732/ajb.1200380. 
  12. ^ Cardoso D, de Queiroz LP, Pennington RT, de Lima HC, Fonty É, Wojciechowski MF, Lavin M. (2012). "Revisiting the phylogeny of papilionoid legumes: new insights from comprehensively sampled early-branching lineages". Am J Bot 99 (12): 1991–2013. doi:10.3732/ajb.1200380. 
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Dalbergioids

The Dalbergioids are an early-branching monophyletic clade of the flowering plant subfamily Faboideae or Papilionaceae. It is pantropical, particularly being found in the neotropics and sub-Saharan Africa.[5] This clade is consistently resolved as monophyletic in molecular phylogenetic analyses.[2][3][4][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13] It is estimated to have arisen 55.3 ± 0.5 million years ago (in the Eocene).[9] A node-based definition for the Dalbergioids is: "The least inclusive crown clade that contains Amorpha fruticosa L. 1753 and Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. ex DC. 1825."[2] Indehiscent pods may be a morphological synapomorphy for the clade.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Wojciechowski MF, Lavin M, Sanderson MJ. (2004). "A phylogeny of legumes (Leguminosae) based on analysis of the plastid matK gene resolves many well-supported subclades within the family". Am J Bot 91 (11): 1846–862. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.11.1846. 
  2. ^ a b c Wojciechowski MF. (2013). "Towards a new classification of Leguminosae: Naming clades using non-Linnaean phylogenetic nomenclature". S Afr J Bot 89: 85–93. doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2013.06.017. 
  3. ^ a b Cardoso D, de Queiroz LP, Pennington RT, de Lima HC, Fonty É, Wojciechowski MF, Lavin M. (2012). "Revisiting the phylogeny of papilionoid legumes: new insights from comprehensively sampled early-branching lineages". Am J Bot 99 (12): 1991–2013. doi:10.3732/ajb.1200380. 
  4. ^ a b c Cardoso D, Pennington RT, de Queiroz LP, Boatwright JS, Van Wyk B-E, Wojciechowski MF, Lavin M. (2013). "Reconstructing the deep-branching relationships of the papilionoid legumes". S Afr J Bot 89: 58–75. doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2013.05.001. 
  5. ^ Klitgaard BB, Lavin M. (2005). "Tribe Dalbergieae sens. lat". In Lewis G, Schrire B, Mackinder B, Lock M. Legumes of the World. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. pp. 307–335. ISBN 1900347806. 
  6. ^ McMahon M, Hufford L. (2004). "Phylogeny of Amorpheae (Fabaceae: Papilionoideae)". Am J Bot 91 (8): 1219–1230. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.8.1219. 
  7. ^ Lavin M, Pennington RT, Klitgaard BB, Sprent JI, de Lima HC, Gasson PE. (2001). "The dalbergioid legumes (Fabaceae): delimitation of a pantropical monophyletic clade". Am J Bot 88 (3): 503–33. doi:10.2307/2657116. PMID 11250829. 
  8. ^ LPWG [Legume Phylogeny Working Group] (2013). "Legume phylogeny and classification in the 21st century: progress, prospects and lessons for other species-rich clades". Taxon 62 (2): 217–248. 
  9. ^ a b Lavin M, Herendeen PS, Wojciechowski MF. (2005). "Evolutionary rates analysis of Leguminosae implicates a rapid diversification of lineages during the tertiary". Syst Biol 54 (4): 575–94. doi:10.1080/10635150590947131. PMID 16085576. 
  10. ^ McMahon MM, Sanderson MJ. (2006). "Phylogenetic supermatrix analysis of GenBank sequences from 2228 papilionoid legumes". Syst Biol 99 (12): 1991–2013. doi:10.3732/ajb.1200380. 
  11. ^ Pennington RT, Lavin M, Ireland H, Klitgaard B, Preston J, Hu J-M. (2001). "Phylogenetic relationships of basal papilionoid legumes based upon sequences of the chloroplast trnL intron". Syst Bot 55 (5): 818–836. doi:10.1043/0363-6445-26.3.537. 
  12. ^ Doyle JJ, Doyle JL, Ballenger JA, Dickson EE, Kajita T, Ohashi H. (1997). "A phylogeny of the chloroplast gene rbcL in the Leguminosae: taxonomic correlations and insights into the evolution of nodulation". Am J Bot 84 (4): 541–554. PMID 21708606. 
  13. ^ Hu JM, Lavin M, Wojciechowski MF, Sanderson MJ. (2000). "Phylogenetic systematics of the tribe Millettieae (Leguminosae) based on chloroplast trnK/matK sequences and its implications for evolutionary patterns in Papilionoideae". Am J Bot 87 (3): 41–30. PMID 10719003. 


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Andira clade

The Andira clade is a predominantly Neotropical, monophyletic clade of the flowering plant subfamily Faboideae (or Papilionaceae).[1][2] The members of this clade were formerly included in tribe Dalbergieae,[3] but this placement was questioned due to differences in wood anatomy and fruit, seed, seedling, floral, and vegetative characters.[4][5][6][7] Recent molecular phylogenetic evidence has shown that they belong to a unique evolutionary lineage.[1][2][8][9][10][11] It is predicted to have diverged from the other legume lineages in the late Eocene).[12]

Description[edit]

The name of this clade is informal and is not assumed to have any particular taxonomic rank like the names authorized by the ICBN or the ICPN.[13] The clade does not currently have a node-based definition, but several morphological synapomorphies have been identified: "mostly fascicled leaves and densely flowered paniculate inflorescences at distal branch ends, […] truly papilionate flowers involving petal differentiation and stamen connation", and "divergent fruit morphologies" (drupaceous in Andira and laterally compressed samaras in Hymenolobium).[1][2][6][7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Cardoso D, Pennington RT, de Queiroz LP, Boatwright JS, Van Wyk B-E, Wojciechowski MF, Lavin M. (2013). "Reconstructing the deep-branching relationships of the papilionoid legumes". S Afr J Bot 89: 58–75. doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2013.05.001. 
  2. ^ a b c d Cardoso D, de Queiroz LP, Pennington RT, de Lima HC, Fonty É, Wojciechowski MF, Lavin M. (2012). "Revisiting the phylogeny of papilionoid legumes: new insights from comprehensively sampled early-branching lineages". Am J Bot 99 (12): 1991–2013. doi:10.3732/ajb.1200380. 
  3. ^ Polhill RM. (1981). "Dalbergieae". In Polhill RM, Raven PH.. Advances in Legume Systematics, Part 1. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. pp. 233–242. ISBN 9780855212247. 
  4. ^ Baretta-Kuipers T. (1981). "Wood anatomy of Leguminosae: its relevance to taxonomy". In Polhill RM, Raven PH.. Advances in Legume Systematics, Part 2. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. pp. 677–705. ISBN 9780855212247. 
  5. ^ de Lima HC. (1990). "Tribo Dalbergieae (Leguminosae Papilionoideae)—morfologia do frutos, sementes e plântulas e sua aplicação na sistemática" [Tribe Dalbergieae (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae)—fruit, seed, and seedling morphology and its application to systematics]. Arq Jard Bot Rio J 304: 1–42. 
  6. ^ a b Pennington RT. (1995). "Cladistic analysis of chloroplast DNA restriction site characters in Andira (Leguminosae: Dalbergieae)". Am J Bot 82 (4): 526–534. JSTOR 2445701. 
  7. ^ a b Pennington RT. (2003). "A monograph of Andira (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae)". Syst Bot Monogr 64: 1–145. doi:10.2307/25027903. 
  8. ^ Wojciechowski MF, Lavin M, Sanderson MJ. (2004). "A phylogeny of legumes (Leguminosae) based on analysis of the plastid matK gene resolves many well-supported subclades within the family". Am J Bot 91 (11): 1846–1862. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.11.1846. PMID 21652332. 
  9. ^ Lavin M, Pennington RT, Klitgaard BB, Sprent JI, de Lima HC, Gasson PE. (2001). "The dalbergioid legumes (Fabaceae): delimitation of a pantropical monophyletic clade". Am J Bot 88 (3): 503–33. doi:10.2307/2657116. PMID 11250829. 
  10. ^ Pennington RT, Lavin M, Ireland H, Klitgaard B, Preston J, Hu J-M. (2001). "Phylogenetic relationships of basal papilionoid legumes based upon sequences of the chloroplast trnL intron". Syst Bot 55 (5): 818–836. doi:10.1043/0363-6445-26.3.537. 
  11. ^ LPWG [Legume Phylogeny Working Group] (2013). "Legume phylogeny and classification in the 21st century: progress, prospects and lessons for other species-rich clades". Taxon 62 (2): 217–248. doi:10.12705/622.8. 
  12. ^ Lavin M, Herendeen PS, Wojciechowski MF. (2005). "Evolutionary rates analysis of Leguminosae implicates a rapid diversification of lineages during the tertiary". Syst Biol 54 (4): 575–94. doi:10.1080/10635150590947131. PMID 16085576. 
  13. ^ Wojciechowski MF. (2013). "Towards a new classification of Leguminosae: Naming clades using non-Linnaean phylogenetic nomenclature". S Afr J Bot 89: 85–93. doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2013.06.017. 


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Non-protein amino acid-accumulating clade

The non-protein amino acid-accumulating clade is a monophyletic clade of the flowering plant subfamily Faboideae (or Papilionaceae) that includes the majority of agriculturally-cultivated legumes. It is characterized by the accumulation of canavanine in the seeds—a deterrent against herbivory. This phylogenetic trait was first recognized in the early 1980s.[5] This clade is consistently resolved in molecular phylogenies.[1][2][4] It contains many economically important genera, including Cicer, Glycine, Medicago, Phaseolus, Trifolium, Vicia, and Vigna.

Description[edit]

This clade circumscribes five subordinate clades: two traditional tribes (Hypocalypteae and Indigofereae) and three informal clades (the mirbelioids, the millettioids, and Hologalegina), as well as several minor taxa.[4] The name of this clade is informal and is not assumed to have any particular taxonomic rank like the names authorized by the ICBN or the ICPN.[3] The clade does not currently have a node-based definition.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Wojciechowski MF, Lavin M, Sanderson MJ. (2004). "A phylogeny of legumes (Leguminosae) based on analysis of the plastid matK gene resolves many well-supported subclades within the family". Am J Bot 91 (11): 1846–862. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.11.1846. 
  2. ^ a b Cardoso D, de Queiroz LP, Pennington RT, de Lima HC, Fonty É, Wojciechowski MF, Lavin M. (2012). "Revisiting the phylogeny of papilionoid legumes: new insights from comprehensively sampled early-branching lineages". Am J Bot 99 (12): 1991–2013. doi:10.3732/ajb.1200380. 
  3. ^ a b Wojciechowski MF. (2013). "Towards a new classification of Leguminosae: Naming clades using non-Linnaean phylogenetic nomenclature". S Afr J Bot 89: 85–93. doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2013.06.017. 
  4. ^ a b c Cardoso D, Pennington RT, de Queiroz LP, Boatwright JS, Van Wyk B-E, Wojciechowski MF, Lavin M. (2013). "Reconstructing the deep-branching relationships of the papilionoid legumes". S Afr J Bot 89: 58–75. doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2013.05.001. 
  5. ^ Bell EA. (1981). "Non-protein amino acids in the Leguminosae". In Polhill RM, Raven PH.. Advances in Legume Systematics, Part 2. Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens. pp. 489–499. ISBN 9780855212247. 


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Genistoids

The Genistoids are one of the major radiations in the plant family Fabaceae. Members of this phylogenetic clade are primarily found in the Southern hemisphere.[1][4][5] Some genera are pollinated by birds.[4] The genistoid clade is consistently resolved as monophyletic in molecular phylogenetic analyses.[1][4][5][7][8][9][10][11] It is estimated to have arisen 56.4 ± 0.2 million years ago (in the Paleocene).[8] A node-based definition for the genistoids is: "the MRCA of Poecilanthe parviflora and Lupinus argenteus."[1] One morphological synapomorphy has been tentatively identified: production of quinolizidine alkaloids.[1][12][13][14] Some genera also accumulate pyrrolizidine.[4][5] A new genus, to be segregated from Clathrotropis, has also been proposed to occupy an undetermined position within the genistoid clade.[4][5]

Core Genistoids[edit]

The core genistoids, also known as the genistoids sensu stricto, comprise most of the tribes of the genistoids sensu lato, and are found mainly in Africa and Eurasia.[5] This subclade is also consistently resolved as monophyletic.[1][4][5][3][7][8][9] A node-based definition for the core genistoids is: "the MRCA of Bolusanthus speciosus and Spartium junceum.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Wojciechowski MF, Lavin M, Sanderson MJ. (2004). "A phylogeny of legumes (Leguminosae) based on analysis of the plastid matK gene resolves many well-supported subclades within the family". Am J Bot 91: 1846–1862. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.11.1846. PMID 21652332. 
  2. ^ Wojciechowski MF. (2013). "Towards a new classification of Leguminosae: Naming clades using non-Linnaean phylogenetic nomenclature". S Afr J Bot 89: 85–93. doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2013.06.017. 
  3. ^ a b Crisp MD, Gilmore S, Van Wyk B-E. (2000). "Molecular phylogeny of the genistoid tribes of papilionoid legumes". In Herendeen PS, Bruneau A. Advances in Legume Systematics, Part 9. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. pp. 249–276. ISBN 184246017X. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Cardoso D, de Queiroz LP, Pennington RT, de Lima HC, Fonty É, Wojciechowski MF, Lavin M. (2012). "Revisiting the phylogeny of papilionoid legumes: new insights from comprehensively sampled early-branching lineages". Am J Bot 99 (12): 1991–2013. doi:10.3732/ajb.1200380. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Cardoso D, Pennington RT, de Queiroz LP, Boatwright JS, Van Wyk B-E, Wojciechowski MF, Lavin M. (2013). "Reconstructing the deep-branching relationships of the papilionoid legumes". S Afr J Bot 89: 58–75. doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2013.05.001. 
  6. ^ Polhill RM. (1981). "Papilionoideae". In Polhill RM, Raven PH. Advances in Legume Systematics, Parts 1 and 2. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. pp. 191–208. ISBN 9780855212247. 
  7. ^ a b LPWG [Legume Phylogeny Working Group] (2013). "Legume phylogeny and classification in the 21st century: progress, prospects and lessons for other species-rich clades". Taxon 62 (2): 217–248. 
  8. ^ a b c Lavin M, Herendeen PS, Wojciechowski MF. (2005). "Evolutionary rates analysis of Leguminosae implicates a rapid diversification of lineages during the tertiary". Syst Biol 54 (4): 575–94. doi:10.1080/10635150590947131. PMID 16085576. 
  9. ^ a b McMahon MM, Sanderson MJ. (2006). "Phylogenetic supermatrix analysis of GenBank sequences from 2228 papilionoid legumes". Syst Biol 99 (12): 1991–2013. doi:10.3732/ajb.1200380. 
  10. ^ Pennington RT, Lavin M, Ireland H, Klitgaard B, Preston J, Hu J-M. (2001). "Phylogenetic relationships of basal papilionoid legumes based upon sequences of the chloroplast trnL intron". Syst Bot 55 (5): 818–836. doi:10.1043/0363-6445-26.3.537. 
  11. ^ Doyle JJ, Doyle JL, Ballenger JA, Dickson EE, Kajita T, Ohashi H. (1997). "A phylogeny of the chloroplast gene rbcL in the Leguminosae: taxonomic correlations and insights into the evolution of nodulation". Am J Bot 84 (4): 541–554. PMID 21708606. 
  12. ^ Kinghorn AD, Hussain RA, Robbins EF, Balandrin MF, Stirton CH, Evans SV. (1988). "Alkaloid distribution in seeds of Ormosia, Pericopsis and Haplormosia". Phytochemistry 27 (2): 439–444. doi:10.1016/0031-9422(88)83116-9. 
  13. ^ Van Wyk B-E. (2003). "The value of chemosystematics in clarifying relationships in the Genistoid tribes of papilionoid legumes". Biochem Syst Ecol 31 (8): 875–884. doi:10.1016/S0305-1978(03)00083-8. 
  14. ^ Wink M, Mohamed GIA. (2003). "Evolution of chemical defense traits in the Leguminosae: mapping of distribution patterns of secondary metabolites on a molecular phylogeny inferred from nucleotide sequences of the rbcL gene". Biochem Syst Ecol 31 (8): 897–917. doi:10.1016/S0305-1978(03)00085-1. 


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Vataireoids

The vataireoids are an early-branching monophyletic clade of the flowering plant subfamily Faboideae (or Papilionaceae) that are mostly found in northern South America, primarily Brazil.[3][4]

Description[edit]

This clade is composed of four genera, two of which were traditionally assigned to the tribe Dalbergieae (Vatairea and Vataireopsis) and two of which were traditionally assigned to the tribe Sophoreae (Luetzelburgia and Sweetia), mainly on the basis of flower morphology.[5][6] However, recent molecular phylogenetic analyses circumscribed these four genera into a strongly supported monophyletic clade.[3][4][7] The name of this clade is informal and is not assumed to have any particular taxonomic rank like the names authorized by the ICBN or the ICPN.[2] The clade is defined as:

"The most inclusive crown clade containing Sweetia fruticosa Spreng. 1825 and Vatairea guianensis Aubl. but not Andira inermis (W. Wright) DC., Zollernia ilicifolia (Brongn.) Vogel 1837, or Aldina insignis (Benth.) Endl. 1843."[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pennington RT, Lavin M, Ireland H, Klitgaard B, Preston J, Hu J-M. (2001). "Phylogenetic relationships of basal papilionoid legumes based upon sequences of the chloroplast trnL intron". Syst Bot 26 (3): 537–556. doi:10.1043/0363-6445-26.3.537. 
  2. ^ a b c Wojciechowski MF. (2013). "Towards a new classification of Leguminosae: Naming clades using non-Linnaean phylogenetic nomenclature". S Afr J Bot 89: 85–93. doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2013.06.017. 
  3. ^ a b Cardoso D, Paganucci de Queiroz L, Cavalcante de Lima H, Suganuma E, van den Berg C, Lavin M. (2013). "A molecular phylogeny of the vataireoid legumes underscores floral evolvability that is general to many early-branching papilionoid lineages". Am J Bot 100 (2): 403–21. doi:10.3732/ajb.1200276. PMID 23378491. 
  4. ^ a b Cardoso DBOS. (2012). "Capítulo 5: A molecular phylogeny of the Vataireoid legumes underscores floral evolvability that is general to many early-branching papilionoid lineages". Sistemática de Papilionoideae (Leguminosae): filogenia das linhagens basais e revisão de Luetzelburgia (Ph.D.). SiCAPES. Docket 28002016002P8. 
  5. ^ Polhill RM. (1981). "Dalbergieae". In Polhill RM, Raven PH.. Advances in Legume Systematics, Part 1. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. pp. 233–242. ISBN 9780855212247. 
  6. ^ Polhill RM. (1981). "Sophoreae". In Polhill RM, Raven PH.. Advances in Legume Systematics, Part 1. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. pp. 213–230. ISBN 9780855212247. 
  7. ^ Cardoso D, Pennington RT, de Queiroz LP, Boatwright JS, Van Wyk B-E, Wojciechowski MF, Lavin M. (2013). "Reconstructing the deep-branching relationships of the papilionoid legumes". S Afr J Bot 89: 58–75. doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2013.05.001. 


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ADA clade

The ADA clade is the earliest-branching monophyletic clade of the flowering plant subfamily Faboideae (or Papilionaceae). Evidence for this clade was sparse[3] until recent molecular phylogenies that included basal faboid genera that previously had been poorly sampled.[1][4]

Description[edit]

This clade is composed of a morphologically eclectic collection of genera.[4] It is one of only three clades (the other two being Swartzieae and the Cladrastis clade) in Faboideae that lack the 50-Kb plastid DNA inversion that is characteristic of the Meso-Papilionoideae.[4] The name of this clade is informal and is not assumed to have any particular taxonomic rank like the names authorized by the ICBN or the ICPN.[2] The clade does not currently have a node-based definition and no morphological synapomorphies have been identified.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Cardoso D, de Queiroz LP, Pennington RT, de Lima HC, Fonty É, Wojciechowski MF, Lavin M. (2012). "Revisiting the phylogeny of papilionoid legumes: new insights from comprehensively sampled early-branching lineages". Am J Bot 99 (12): 1991–2013. doi:10.3732/ajb.1200380. 
  2. ^ a b Wojciechowski MF. (2013). "Towards a new classification of Leguminosae: Naming clades using non-Linnaean phylogenetic nomenclature". S Afr J Bot 89: 85–93. doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2013.06.017. 
  3. ^ Ireland HE, Pennington RT, Preston J. (2000). "Molecular systematics of the Swartzieae". In Herendeen PS, Bruneau A.. Advances in Legume Systematics, Part 9. Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens. pp. 277–298. ISBN 184246017X. 
  4. ^ a b c Cardoso D, Pennington RT, de Queiroz LP, Boatwright JS, Van Wyk B-E, Wojciechowski MF, Lavin M. (2013). "Reconstructing the deep-branching relationships of the papilionoid legumes". S Afr J Bot 89: 58–75. doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2013.05.001. 


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Robinioids

The robinioids are one of the four major clades (genisitoids, dalbergioids, millettioids and robinioids) in subfamily Faboideae of the flowering plant family Fabaceae (Leguminosae). It is composed of the traditional tribes Loteae, Sesbanieae and Robinieae. It is a large and important clade that is distributed in mostly temperate areas. Species in this clade share a unique determinate root nodule structure. The clade is predicted to have diverged from the other legume lineages 48.3±1.0 million years ago (in the Eocene).[1]

History[edit]

Only two tribes (Loteae and Robinieae) were traditionally included in clade robinioids. Lavin & Schrire later included Sesbanieae into clade robinioids.[1] Tribe Robinieae is primarily in tropical and arid temperate areas, containing mostly trees and shrubs of New World. Tribe Loteae are herbaceous and small shrubby legumes closely related with Old World tribe Galegeae.[2]

Loteae was originally a smaller group of legumes until later in 1994 Polhill merged Loteae and tribe Coronilleae and greatly expanded Loteae.[3] Sesbanieae is a tribe with single genus Sesbania, which was originally placed under tribe Robinieae.

Systematics[edit]

Loteae and Robinieae are traditionally grouped under clade robinioids: these two major groups are primarily found in Europe, North America, and South America.[1][3] Sesbanieae was a group included in 2005.[1]

Monophyly:

Monophyly of tribe Loteae: molecular data have shown support for monophyly with the exception for New World Lotus. Monophyly of Old World Lotus is moderately supported whereas New World Lotus is considered as paraphyletic.[4]

Monophyly of tribe Robinieae and Sesbanieae is strongly supported. Sesbanieae only has one genus Sesbania.

Intratribal relationship: Sesbanieae is either sister to Loteae, or sister to the rest of clade robinioids.[5][6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Lavin M, Herendeen PS, Wojciechowski MF. (2005). "Evolutionary rates analysis of Leguminosae implicates a rapid diversification of lineages during the tertiary". Syst Biol 54 (4): 575–94. doi:10.1080/10635150590947131. PMID 16085576. 
  2. ^ Dormer, 1945
  3. ^ a b Polhill, 1994
  4. ^ Allan et al., 2003
  5. ^ Wojciechowski et al., 2000
  6. ^ Lavin et al., 2003

Bibliography[edit]

  • Polhill, R. M. (1994). Classification of the Leguminosae. Pages xxxv–xlviii in Phytochemical Dictionary of the Leguminosae (F. A. Bisby, J. Buckingham, and J. B. Harborne, eds.). Chapman and Hall, New York, NY.
  • Lavin M. and Schrire B. D. (2005). Sesbanieae. Pages 452-453 in Legumes of the world (Lewis et al., eds.). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK.
  • Lavin M. and Schrire B. D. (2005). Robinieae. Pages 467-473 in Legumes of the world (Lewis et al., eds.). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK.
  • Allan G. J., Zimmer E. A., Wagner W. L. and Sokoloff D. D.. (2003). Molecular phylogenetic analyses of tribe Loteae (Leguminosae): implications for classification and biogeography. Pages 371-393 in Advances in legume systematics, part 10: higher level systematics (B.B. Klitgaard and A. Bruneau, eds.). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK.
  • Wojciechowski M. F., Sanderson M. J., Steele K. P. and Liston A. (2000). Molecular phylogeny of the “temperate herbaceous tribes” of papilionoid legumes: a supertree approach. Pages 277-298 in Advances in Legume Systematics, part 9 (P. S. Herendeen and A. Bruneau, eds.). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK.
  • Dormer, K.J. (1945). An investigation of the taxonomic value of shoot structure in angiosperms with especial reference to Leguminosae. Ann. Bot., n.s. 9: 141-153.
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