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DescriptionAnnual or perennial herbs, sometimes aquatic, other times terrestrial but often growing in seasonally wet habitats. Leaves usually opposite and decussate at least near the base, sometimes whorled or arranged in a rosette, occasionally alternate above, rarely floating. Flowers solitary and axillary or arranged in terminal racemes or axillary fascicles. Corolla 2-lipped; upper lip usually 2-lobed; lobes of the upper lip exterior in bud (covering lobes of lower lip); lower lip usually larger and 3-lobed; corolla without pouches, pockets or spurs near base of corolla tube or limb. Stamens 4, all fertile or only upper pair fertile and with 2 staminodes; all stamens and staminodes arising at the top of corolla tube or in the throat, anterior ones usually with appendages at base, rarely simple (Lindernia conferta); anther thecae 2, distinct or confluent. Nectary present or absent. Ovary 2-locular with many ovules in each loculus. Fruit a capsule. Seeds usually small and numerous.