The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.

References

  • 1.  Brinkman, K. A. 1974. Amelanchier Med.  serviceberry. In: Schopmeyer, C.        S., technical coordinator. Seeds of woody plants in the United States.        Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture,        Forest Service: 212-215.  [7516]
  • 12.  Masters, Ronald E. 1991. Effects of fire and timber harvest on        vegetation and cervid use on oak-pine sites in Oklahoma Ouachita        Mountains. In: Nodvin, Stephen C.; Waldrop, Thomas A., eds. Fire and the        environment: ecological and cultural perspectives: Proceedings of an        international symposium; 1990 March 20-24; Knoxville, TN. Gen. Tech.        Rep. SE-69. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest        Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station: 168-176.  [16648]
  • 13.  Parker, G. R.; Leopold, D. J.; Eichenberger, J. K. 1985. Tree dynamics        in an old-growth, deciduous forest. Forest Ecology and Management.        11(1&2): 31-57.  [13314]
  • 14.  Preston, Richard J., Jr. 1948. North American trees. Ames, IA: The Iowa        State College Press. 371 p.  [1913]
  • 17.  Robinson, W. Ann. 1986. Effect of fruit ingestion on Amelanchier seed        germination. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 113(2): 131-134.        [4552]
  • 18.  Saunders, Paul R.; Smathers, Garrett A.; Ramseur, George S. 1983.        Secondary succession of a spruce-fir burn in the Plott Balsam Mountains,        North Carolina. Castanea. 48(1): 41-47.  [8658]
  • 19.  Scheiner, Samuel M.; Sharik, Terry L.; Roberts, Mark R.; Vande Kopple,        Robert. 1988. Tree density and modes of tree recruitment in a Michigan        pine-hardwood forest after clear-cutting and burning. Canadian        Field-Naturalist. 102(4): 634-638.  [8718]
  • 2.  Busing, Richard T.; Clebsch, Edward E. C.; Eagar, Christopher C.;        Pauley, Eric F. 1988. Two decades of change in a Great Smoky Mountains        spruce-fir forest. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 115(1): 25-31.        [4491]
  • 20.  Soper, James H.; Heimburger, Margaret L. 1982. Shrubs of Ontario. Life        Sciences Misc. Publ. Toronto, ON: Royal Ontario Museum. 495 p.  [12907]
  • 21.  Trimble, G. R., Jr. 1972. Reproduction 7 years after seed-tree harvest        cutting in Appalachian hardwoods. Res. Pap. NE-223. Upper Darby, PA:        U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest        Experiment Station. 19 p.  [10924]
  • 23.  Voss, Edward G. 1985. Michigan flora. Part II. Dicots        (Saururaceae--Cornaceae). Bull. 59. Bloomfield Hills, MI: Cranbrook        Institute of Science; Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Herbarium.        724 p.  [11472]
  • 24.  Wendel, G. W.; Kochenderfer, J. N. 1982. Glyphosate controls hardwoods        in West Virginia. Res. Pap. NE-497. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 7        p.  [9869]
  • 4.  Fernald, Merritt Lyndon. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. [Corrections        supplied by R. C. Rollins]
  • 6.  Gottschalk, Kurt W. 1988. Gypsy moth and regenerating Appalachian        hardwood stands. In: Smith, H. Clay; Perkey, Arlyn W.; Kidd, William E.,        Jr., eds. Guidelines for regenerating Appalachian hardwood stands:        Workshop proceedings; 1988 May 24-26; Morgantown, WV. SAF Publ. 88-03.        Morgantown, WV: West Virginia University Books: 241-254.  [13950]
  • 7.  Hall, Christine N.; Kuss, Fred R. 1989. Vegetation alteration along        trails in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia. Biological Conservation.        48: 211-227.  [9306]
  • 8.  Hix, David M.; Fosbroke, David E.; Hicks, Ray R., Jr.; Gottschalk, Kurt        W. 1991. Development of regeneration following gypsy moth defoliation of        Appalachian Plateau and Ridge & Valley hardwood stands. In: McCormick,        Larry H.; Gottschalk, Kurt W., eds. Proceedings, 8th central hardwood        forest conference; 1991 March 4-6; University Park, PA. Gen. Tech. Rep.        NE-148. Radnor, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,        Northeastern Forest Experiment Station: 347-359.  [15323]
  • 9.  Jordan, Marilyn J. 1975. Effects of zinc smelter emissions and fire on a        chestnut-oak woodland. Ecology. 56: 78-91.  [3461]
  • Anonymous. 1986. List-Based Rec., Soil Conserv. Serv., U.S.D.A. Database of the U.S.D.A., Beltsville.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1103 External link.
  • Bailey, L. H. & E. Z. Bailey. 1976. Hortus Third i–xiv, 1–1290. MacMillan, New York.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/922 External link.
  • Correll, D. S. & M. C. Johnston. 1970. Man. Vasc. Pl. Texas i–xv, 1–1881. The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1493 External link.
  • Fernald, M. 1950. Manual (ed. 8) i–lxiv, 1–1632. American Book Co., New York.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1327 External link.
  • Fernald. 1941. In: Rhodora. 43. 563
  • Gleason, H. A. & A. J. Cronquist. 1991. Man. Vasc. Pl. N.E. U.S. (ed. 2) i–910. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/40417 External link.
  • Gleason, H. A. 1968. The Choripetalous Dicotyledoneae. vol. 2. 655 pp. In H. A. Gleason Ill. Fl. N. U.S. (ed. 3). New York Botanical Garden, New York.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1704 External link.
  • Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Fl. Great Plains i–vii, 1–1392. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/637 External link.
  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2013. Illinois Wildflowers. World Wide Web electronic publication. flowervisitors.info, version 06/2013.
    See: Botanical Terminology and Line DrawingsEcological TerminologyWebsite DescriptionLinks to Other WebsitesReference Materials
  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2014. Insect Visitors of Illinois Wildflowers.  World Wide Web electronic publication. illinoiswildflowers.info, version (03/2014) 
    See:   Abbreviations for Insect ActivitiesAbbreviations for Scientific ObserversReferences for behavioral observations
  • Image metadata at Bioimages (http://bioimages.vanderbilt.edu/)   http://bioimages.vanderbilt.edu/baskauf/00000 External link.
  • Radford, A. E., H. E. Ahles & C. R. Bell. 1968. Man. Vasc. Fl. Carolinas i–lxi, 1–1183. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/636 External link.
  • Scoggan, H. J. 1978. Dicotyledoneae (Saururaceae to Violaceae). 3: 547–1115. In Fl. Canada. National Museums of Canada, Ottawa.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1682 External link.
  • Voss, E. G. 1985. Michigan Flora. Part II Dicots (Saururaceae-Cornaceae). Bull. Cranbrook Inst. Sci. 59. xix + 724.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1700 External link.
  • Wilson K.L. & Berendsohn W.G. (eds) (2013). IOPI Global Plant Checklist (version 10.0, Aug 2007). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at www.catalogueoflife.org/col/. Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Wunderlin, R. P. 1998. Guide Vasc. Pl. Florida i–x, 1–806. University Press of Florida, Gainseville.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1009274 External link.

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