Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

This is a multi-stemmed shrub or small tree about 10-30' tall, forming an irregular crown that is usually more tall than wide. If there is a single trunk, it is 6-16" across near the base and short. Trunk bark is gray, developing shallow furrows and flat ridges on older shrubs or trees. Branch bark is smooth and gray, while twigs are some shade of brown and glabrous. Young leafy and flowering shoots are green and they are more or less covered with woolly hairs. Alternate leaves up to 4" long and 2" across occur along the shoots and young twigs. These leaves are more or less ovate in shape and finely serrated along their margins; the bases of these leaves are either rounded or slightly cordate. Young leaves are densely covered with woolly hairs, particularly along their undersides. Leaves become less hairy as they mature
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Description

Rose Family (Rosaceae). Native shrubs or small trees to 10 meters tall, with a narrow, rounded crown, the twigs often red-brown to purplish, becoming gray; bark smooth, grayish, "striped" with vertical fissures and very ornamental. Leaves: deciduous, alternate, simple, oval to oblong, 5-13 cm long, glabrous above, pubescent and paler beneath, the base rounded or heart-shaped, acute or acuminate at the tip, with finely toothed margins. Flowers: 3-15 in elongate clusters at the branch tips, before the leaves appear; petals 5, white, 10-14 mm long and strap-like. Fruits 6-12 mm wide, on long stalks, red-purple at maturity; seed 5-10 per fruit. The common name: in some regions, the flowers are gathered for church services, hence serviceberry or sarvis-berry; or “service” from “sarvis,” in turn a modification of the older name “Sorbus,” a closely related genus.

Variation within the species: Three varieties have been recognized: var. alabamensis (Britt.) G.N. Jones; var. arborea; and var. austromontana (Ashe) Ahles.

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Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Occurrence in North America

     AL  AR  CT  DE  FL  GA  IL  IN  IA  KS
     KY  LA  ME  MD  MA  MI  MN  MS  MO  NE
     NH  NJ  NY  NC  OH  OK  PA  RI  SC  TN
     VT  VA  WV  WI  NB  NF  NS  ON  PE  PQ

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Downy serviceberry occurs from the southern tip of Newfoundland south to
the northern tip of the Florida Panhandle and west to southern Ontario
and Quebec, eastern Kansas, the eastern edge of Nebraska, and southern
Mississippi and Alabama.  North of Virginia, it is found along the
coast, but from Virginia south it occurs inland [14].
  • 14.  Preston, Richard J., Jr. 1948. North American trees. Ames, IA: The Iowa        State College Press. 371 p.  [1913]

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Range and Habitat in Illinois

The native Downy Serviceberry is occasional throughout Illinois (see Distribution Map). It the most common species of its genus within the state. Habitats include thinly wooded bluffs, wooded slopes, exposed cliffs, rocky upland woodlands, limestone glades, banks of rivers above the flood zone, and edges of swamps. Fire may be beneficial in maintaining populations of this shrub or tree because it can resprout from the base. It can also colonize newly exposed areas because of the rapid spread of its seeds by birds. Because of its attractive flowers and fruit, Downy Serviceberry is sometimes cultivated.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Amelanchier arborea (F. Michx.) Fernald:
Canada (North America)
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Adaptation

Downy serviceberry grows in a variety of habitats – swampy lowlands, dry woods, sandy bluffs, rocky ridges, forest edges, and open woodlands and fields. It is a late successional to climax species in mixed-hardwood forests of the central U.S., commonly as an understory species. In the southern Appalachians, downy serviceberry grows in red spruce-Fraser fir forests at elevations of 1500-2000 meters with yellow birch, mountain ash, elderberry, and hobblebush. Flowering (March-)April-May, among the first of the early spring trees and shrubs to bloom; fruiting June-August.

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Downy serviceberry is widespread in the eastern US and southeastern Canada (New Brunswick and southern Newfoundland to Quebec and Ontario); south to the northern tip of the Florida Panhandle and west to Alabama, southern Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas (rare), Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, and Minnesota.

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

More info for the terms: shrub, tree

Downy serviceberry is a tall, deciduous shrub or small tree, growing up
to 30 feet (9 m) or more [20].  Its trunk is about 16 inches (40 cm) in
diameter [4].  The maximum recorded height and diameter for downy
serviceberry is 70 feet (21 m) high and 2 feet (0.6 m) d.b.h. [14].  Its
branches are purplish when young but turn grey at maturity.  Leaves are
alternate and simple with serrate margins.  They are almost twice as
long as broad.  Flowers are white, and the berrylike pomme fruit is dark
red to purple [20].  There are 4 to 10 seeds per fruit [1].
  • 1.  Brinkman, K. A. 1974. Amelanchier Med.  serviceberry. In: Schopmeyer, C.        S., technical coordinator. Seeds of woody plants in the United States.        Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture,        Forest Service: 212-215.  [7516]
  • 4.  Fernald, Merritt Lyndon. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. [Corrections        supplied by R. C. Rollins]
  • 14.  Preston, Richard J., Jr. 1948. North American trees. Ames, IA: The Iowa        State College Press. 371 p.  [1913]
  • 20.  Soper, James H.; Heimburger, Margaret L. 1982. Shrubs of Ontario. Life        Sciences Misc. Publ. Toronto, ON: Royal Ontario Museum. 495 p.  [12907]

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat characteristics

Downy serviceberry grows on a variety of sites from swampy lowlands to
dry woods and sandy bluffs.  It also grows on rocky ridges, forest
edges, and open woodlands and fields [20,23].  In the mixed hardwoods of
Appalachia, downy serviceberry may compete better with other species in
stands on low quality sites [21]. 

Downy serviceberry grows in red spruce (Picea rubens)-Fraser fir (Abies
fraseri) forests of the mountainous Southeast.  Here it grows in
association with yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis), mountain ash
(Sorbus americana), elderberry (Sambucus pubens), and hobblebush
(Viburnum alnifolium) at elevations between 4,950 and 6,600 feet
(1,500-2,000 m).  Soils in these types are moderately drained
Inceptisols with a thick organic horizon and a low pH [2].

In the Midwest downy serviceberry grows with boxelder (Acer negundo),
sugar maple (A. saccharum), white oak (Quercus alba), black ash
(Fraxinus nigra), American beech (Fagus grandifolia), shagbark hickory
(Carya ovata), and American hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana).  Soils here
are well-drained silty clay loam and poorly drained silt loams [13].
Some understory associates include lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium
angustifolium), penstemon (Penstemon canescens), raspberry (Rubus spp.),
greenbrier (Smilax spp.), and witch-hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) [7,8].
  • 2.  Busing, Richard T.; Clebsch, Edward E. C.; Eagar, Christopher C.;        Pauley, Eric F. 1988. Two decades of change in a Great Smoky Mountains        spruce-fir forest. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 115(1): 25-31.        [4491]
  • 7.  Hall, Christine N.; Kuss, Fred R. 1989. Vegetation alteration along        trails in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia. Biological Conservation.        48: 211-227.  [9306]
  • 8.  Hix, David M.; Fosbroke, David E.; Hicks, Ray R., Jr.; Gottschalk, Kurt        W. 1991. Development of regeneration following gypsy moth defoliation of        Appalachian Plateau and Ridge & Valley hardwood stands. In: McCormick,        Larry H.; Gottschalk, Kurt W., eds. Proceedings, 8th central hardwood        forest conference; 1991 March 4-6; University Park, PA. Gen. Tech. Rep.        NE-148. Radnor, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,        Northeastern Forest Experiment Station: 347-359.  [15323]
  • 13.  Parker, G. R.; Leopold, D. J.; Eichenberger, J. K. 1985. Tree dynamics        in an old-growth, deciduous forest. Forest Ecology and Management.        11(1&2): 31-57.  [13314]
  • 20.  Soper, James H.; Heimburger, Margaret L. 1982. Shrubs of Ontario. Life        Sciences Misc. Publ. Toronto, ON: Royal Ontario Museum. 495 p.  [12907]
  • 21.  Trimble, G. R., Jr. 1972. Reproduction 7 years after seed-tree harvest        cutting in Appalachian hardwoods. Res. Pap. NE-223. Upper Darby, PA:        U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest        Experiment Station. 19 p.  [10924]
  • 23.  Voss, Edward G. 1985. Michigan flora. Part II. Dicots        (Saururaceae--Cornaceae). Bull. 59. Bloomfield Hills, MI: Cranbrook        Institute of Science; Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Herbarium.        724 p.  [11472]

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Habitat: Cover Types

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

     1  Jack pine
    16  Aspen
    25  Sugar maple - beech - yellow birch
    26  Sugar maple - basswood
    27  Sugar maple
    28  Black cherry - maple
    30  Red spruce - yellow birch
    31  Red spruce - sugar maple - beech
    34  Red spruce - Fraser fir
    39  Black ash - American elm - red maple
    42  Bur oak
    52  White oak - black oak - northern red oak
    53  White oak
    55  Northern red oak
    57  Yellow-poplar
    59  Yellow-poplar - white oak - northern red oak
    60  Beech - sugar maple
    61  River birch - sycamore
    62  Silver maple - American elm
    64  Sassafras - persimmon
    65  pin oak - sweet gum
    75  Shortleaf pine
    76  Shortleaf pine - oak
    97  Atlantic white-cedar
   108  Red maple
   109  Hawthorn
   110  Black oak

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Habitat: Plant Associations

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This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

   K097  Southeastern spruce - fir forest
   K098  Northern floodplain forest
   K099  Maple - basswood forest
   K100  Oak - hickory
   K101  Elm - ash forest
   K102  Beech - maple forest
   K103  Mixed mesophytic forest
   K104  Appalachian oak forest
   K106  Northern hardwoods
   K109  Transition between K104 and K106
   K110  Northeastern oak - pine forest
   K111  Oak - hickory - pine
   K112  Southern mixed forest

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Habitat: Ecosystem

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This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

   FRES10  White - red - jack pine
   FRES11  Spruce - fir
   FRES13  Loblolly - shortleaf pine
   FRES14  Oak - pine
   FRES15  Oak - hickory
   FRES17  Elm - ash - cottonwood
   FRES18  Maple - beech - birch
   FRES19  Aspen - birch

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Range and Habitat in Illinois

The native Downy Serviceberry is occasional throughout Illinois (see Distribution Map). It the most common species of its genus within the state. Habitats include thinly wooded bluffs, wooded slopes, exposed cliffs, rocky upland woodlands, limestone glades, banks of rivers above the flood zone, and edges of swamps. Fire may be beneficial in maintaining populations of this shrub or tree because it can resprout from the base. It can also colonize newly exposed areas because of the rapid spread of its seeds by birds. Because of its attractive flowers and fruit, Downy Serviceberry is sometimes cultivated.
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Dispersal

Establishment

Downy serviceberry regenerates mainly by seed, but

it also sprouts from the roots. Birds and mammals disperse seeds; scarification of the seeds after ingestion by birds is important for germination. Seeds can be sown after 2-6 months of cold stratification, but they will not usually germinate until after the second spring.

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Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects of Downy Serviceberry in Illinois

Amelanchier arborea (Downy Serviceberry)
(Bees usually suck nectar, but sometimes also collect pollen; beetle activity is unspecified; other insects suck nectar; observations are from Robertson and MacRae)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera sn cp fq; Apidae (Bombini): Bombus bimaculatus sn, Bombus pensylvanica sn; Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina dupla dupla sn; Anthophoridae (Nomadini): Nomada denticulata sn, Nomada illinoiensis sn

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Agapostemon sericea sn, Augochloropsis sumptuosa sn, Halictus confusus sn cp, Halictus rubicunda sn, Lasioglossum cinctipes sn cp fq, Lasioglossum cressonii sn, Lasioglossum foxii sn, Lasioglossum imitatus sn, Lasioglossum pilosus pilosus sn cp fq, Lasioglossum versatus sn cp fq, Lasioglossum zephyrus sn fq; Colletidae (Colletinae): Colletes inaequalis sn fq; Andrenidae (Andreninae): Andrena andrenoides andrenoides sn fq, Andrena bisalicis sn fq, Andrena carlini sn, Andrena cressonii sn cp fq, Andrena erythrogaster sn fq, Andrena erythronii sn, Andrena forbesii sn fq, Andrena hippotes sn, Andrena imitatrix imitatrix sn fq, Andrena mandibularis sn, Andrena mariae sn, Andrena miserabilis bipunctata sn fq, Andrena rugosa sn, Andrena salictaria sn fq, Andrena sayi sn fq

Sawflies
Tenthredinidae: Dolerus unicolor

Flies
Syrphidae: Brachypalpus oarus, Eristalinus aeneus, Eristalis dimidiatus fq, Eristalis transversus, Eupeodes americanus fq, Helophilus fasciatus, Platycheirus quadratus, Sphaerophoria contiqua, Toxomerus geminatus, Toxomerus marginatus; Bombyliidae: Bombylius major; Tachinidae: Chetogena claripennis, Gonia capitata; Calliphoridae: Cynomya cadaverina fq; Muscidae: Neomyia cornicina; Anthomyiidae: Leucophora unistriata; Scathophagidae: Scathophaga furcata fq

Beetles
Buprestidae: Acmaeodera neglecta (McR), Acmaeodera ornata (McR)

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Faunal Associations

The nectar and pollen of the flowers attract honeybees, Andrenid bees (Andrena spp.), Halictid bees (Halictus spp., Lasioglossum spp.), Syrphid flies, Tachinid flies, Buprestid beetles (Acmaeodera spp.), and other insects. Other insects feed on the foliage, bore through the wood, or suck plant juices of Downy Serviceberry and other Amelanchier spp. These species include the caterpillars of the butterflies Satyrium liparops strigosum (Striped Hairstreak) and Limenitis arthemis astyanax (Red-Spotted Purple). The caterpillars of many moths also feed on these small trees or shrubs, including Lomigrapha semiclarata (Blue Spring Moth), Catocala praeclara (Chokeberry Underwing), several Acronicta spp. (Dagger Moths), and others (see Moth Table). Other insect feeders include the wood-boring larvae of several Buprestid beetles and long-horned beetles, Crepidodera violacea (a leaf beetle), Corythucha cydoniae (Hawthorn Lace Bug), larvae of the sawflies Arge clavicorne and Onycholyda luteicornis, the aphid Prociphilus corrugatans, and the psyllid Trioza obtusa. The fruits of Amelanchier spp. are an attractive source of food to the Ruffed Grouse, Hairy Woodpecker, Hermit Thrush, Cedar Waxwing, Baltimore Oriole, and many other birds (see Bird Table). Some mammals also eat the fruit, including the Red Fox, Striped Skunk, Eastern Chipmunk, and White-Footed Mouse. Beavers occasionally gnaw on the bark and wood of small trees or shrubs that grow along riverbanks, while White-Tailed Deer browse on twigs and leaves.
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General Ecology

Broad-scale Impacts of Plant Response to Fire

More info for the terms: basal area, prescribed fire, wildfire

Following wildfire in a spruce-fir forest of Appalachia, downy
serviceberry was present in stands after 30 years, but was less than 1
percent of the total basal area.  Specific effects of the fire on downy
serviceberry were not studied [18].  For fire information on
a related species, see Amelanchier alnifolia.

The following Research Project Summaries
provide information on prescribed

fire use and postfire response of plant
community species, including downy

serviceberry, that was not available when this
species review was originally

written:
  • 18.  Saunders, Paul R.; Smathers, Garrett A.; Ramseur, George S. 1983.        Secondary succession of a spruce-fir burn in the Plott Balsam Mountains,        North Carolina. Castanea. 48(1): 41-47.  [8658]

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Immediate Effect of Fire

Fire top-kills downy serviceberry [19].
  • 19.  Scheiner, Samuel M.; Sharik, Terry L.; Roberts, Mark R.; Vande Kopple,        Robert. 1988. Tree density and modes of tree recruitment in a Michigan        pine-hardwood forest after clear-cutting and burning. Canadian        Field-Naturalist. 102(4): 634-638.  [8718]

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Post-fire Regeneration

   survivor species; on-site surviving root crown
   off-site colonizer; seed carried by animals or water; postfire yr 1&2

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Fire Ecology

Downy serviceberry can sprout from root crowns and stumps following fire
[19].  Some reestablishment from seed dispersed from off-site may also
occur.
  • 19.  Scheiner, Samuel M.; Sharik, Terry L.; Roberts, Mark R.; Vande Kopple,        Robert. 1988. Tree density and modes of tree recruitment in a Michigan        pine-hardwood forest after clear-cutting and burning. Canadian        Field-Naturalist. 102(4): 634-638.  [8718]

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Successional Status

More info on this topic.

More info for the term: climax

Downy serviceberry is a late successional to climax species in
mixed-hardwood forests of the central United States [13].
  • 13.  Parker, G. R.; Leopold, D. J.; Eichenberger, J. K. 1985. Tree dynamics        in an old-growth, deciduous forest. Forest Ecology and Management.        11(1&2): 31-57.  [13314]

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Regeneration Processes

More info for the term: root crown

Downy serviceberry regenerates mainly by seed, but it also sprouts from
the root crown [14].  Seeds are dispersed by birds and mammals; bird
ingestion of seeds is an important scarification process [17].  Seeds
should be collected soon after ripening before animals eat them.  Seeds
can be washed from the fruits by mashing them with water.  There is an
average of 80,000 cleaned seeds per pound (176,000 kg).  Seeds should be
dry stored at 41 degrees Fahrenheit (5 deg C) in sealed containers.
Seeds can be sown in either fall or spring after 2 to 6 months of cold
stratification, but they will not usually germinate until after the
second spring [1].
  • 1.  Brinkman, K. A. 1974. Amelanchier Med.  serviceberry. In: Schopmeyer, C.        S., technical coordinator. Seeds of woody plants in the United States.        Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture,        Forest Service: 212-215.  [7516]
  • 14.  Preston, Richard J., Jr. 1948. North American trees. Ames, IA: The Iowa        State College Press. 371 p.  [1913]
  • 17.  Robinson, W. Ann. 1986. Effect of fruit ingestion on Amelanchier seed        germination. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 113(2): 131-134.        [4552]

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Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

More info on this topic.

More info for the terms: hemicryptophyte, phanerophyte

   Microphanerophyte
   Nanophanerophyte
   Hemicryptophyte

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Life Form

More info for the terms: shrub, tree

Tree, Shrub

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Broad-scale Impacts of Fire

August burning of slash piles in the forest of lower Michigan killed
most of the downy serviceberry on the site [19].  Stumps and roots
sprouted the following year, but much of downy serviceberry found on the
site was established from seed dispersed by birds and mammals.  Studies
in Pennsylvania showed contradictory results in the closely related
species, Amelanchier canadensis [9].  A. canadensis was not present on
burned sites until more than 15 years following fire but was prolific on
unburned sites.
  • 9.  Jordan, Marilyn J. 1975. Effects of zinc smelter emissions and fire on a        chestnut-oak woodland. Ecology. 56: 78-91.  [3461]
  • 19.  Scheiner, Samuel M.; Sharik, Terry L.; Roberts, Mark R.; Vande Kopple,        Robert. 1988. Tree density and modes of tree recruitment in a Michigan        pine-hardwood forest after clear-cutting and burning. Canadian        Field-Naturalist. 102(4): 634-638.  [8718]

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Plant Response to Fire

Downy serviceberry will recolonize sites following fire [18,19].
  • 18.  Saunders, Paul R.; Smathers, Garrett A.; Ramseur, George S. 1983.        Secondary succession of a spruce-fir burn in the Plott Balsam Mountains,        North Carolina. Castanea. 48(1): 41-47.  [8658]
  • 19.  Scheiner, Samuel M.; Sharik, Terry L.; Roberts, Mark R.; Vande Kopple,        Robert. 1988. Tree density and modes of tree recruitment in a Michigan        pine-hardwood forest after clear-cutting and burning. Canadian        Field-Naturalist. 102(4): 634-638.  [8718]

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Phenology

More info on this topic.

In the northern part of its range, downy serviceberry flowers at the
same time its leaves emerge in April and May.  Fruits are produced in
June and July [20].  In southern parts of its range, downy serviceberry
flowers in March and produces fruit from June through August [1,4].
  • 1.  Brinkman, K. A. 1974. Amelanchier Med.  serviceberry. In: Schopmeyer, C.        S., technical coordinator. Seeds of woody plants in the United States.        Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture,        Forest Service: 212-215.  [7516]
  • 4.  Fernald, Merritt Lyndon. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. [Corrections        supplied by R. C. Rollins]
  • 20.  Soper, James H.; Heimburger, Margaret L. 1982. Shrubs of Ontario. Life        Sciences Misc. Publ. Toronto, ON: Royal Ontario Museum. 495 p.  [12907]

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Amelanchier arborea

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Status

Please consult the PLANTS Web site and your State Department of Natural Resources for this plant’s current status, such as, state status and wetland indicator values.

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Management

Management considerations

More info for the term: density

Downy serviceberry is the preferred food of the gypsy moth (Lymantria
dispar) during its larval stages [6].  Downy serviceberry has been known
to increase in number and density after defoliation from gypsy moths
[8].

Mistblown Roundup applied in late summer or early fall kills downy
serviceberry [24].
  • 6.  Gottschalk, Kurt W. 1988. Gypsy moth and regenerating Appalachian        hardwood stands. In: Smith, H. Clay; Perkey, Arlyn W.; Kidd, William E.,        Jr., eds. Guidelines for regenerating Appalachian hardwood stands:        Workshop proceedings; 1988 May 24-26; Morgantown, WV. SAF Publ. 88-03.        Morgantown, WV: West Virginia University Books: 241-254.  [13950]
  • 8.  Hix, David M.; Fosbroke, David E.; Hicks, Ray R., Jr.; Gottschalk, Kurt        W. 1991. Development of regeneration following gypsy moth defoliation of        Appalachian Plateau and Ridge & Valley hardwood stands. In: McCormick,        Larry H.; Gottschalk, Kurt W., eds. Proceedings, 8th central hardwood        forest conference; 1991 March 4-6; University Park, PA. Gen. Tech. Rep.        NE-148. Radnor, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,        Northeastern Forest Experiment Station: 347-359.  [15323]
  • 24.  Wendel, G. W.; Kochenderfer, J. N. 1982. Glyphosate controls hardwoods        in West Virginia. Res. Pap. NE-497. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 7        p.  [9869]

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Cultivars, improved and selected materials (and area of origin)

Natural, fertile hybrids occur between downy serviceberry and A. bartramiana, A. canadensis, A. humilis, and A. laevis. Some cultivars are selections from A. X grandiflora, the hybrid of A. arborea and A. laevis. Many individuals within Amelanchier arise through hybridization and species boundaries are often not clear.

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USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center & Biota of North America Program

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Fire top-kills downy serviceberry, but it can sprout from root crowns and stumps following fire. A significant portion of the post-fir reestablishment is from seed dispersed from off-site by birds and mammals. Following wildfire in a spruce-fir forest of Appalachia, downy serviceberry was present in stands after 30 years but was less than 1% of the total basal area. Gypsy moth larvae (Lymantria dispar) feed selectively on downy serviceberry.

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Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

At least 40 bird species and several dozen mammal species eat the fruit
of the Amelanchier genus.  Mammals that use downy serviceberry include
squirrels, chipmunks, mice, voles, foxes, black bears, and elk [12,17].
  • 12.  Masters, Ronald E. 1991. Effects of fire and timber harvest on        vegetation and cervid use on oak-pine sites in Oklahoma Ouachita        Mountains. In: Nodvin, Stephen C.; Waldrop, Thomas A., eds. Fire and the        environment: ecological and cultural perspectives: Proceedings of an        international symposium; 1990 March 20-24; Knoxville, TN. Gen. Tech.        Rep. SE-69. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest        Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station: 168-176.  [16648]
  • 17.  Robinson, W. Ann. 1986. Effect of fruit ingestion on Amelanchier seed        germination. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 113(2): 131-134.        [4552]

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Wood Products Value

In areas where downy serviceberry grows big enough, it is used for
pulpwood [21].
  • 21.  Trimble, G. R., Jr. 1972. Reproduction 7 years after seed-tree harvest        cutting in Appalachian hardwoods. Res. Pap. NE-223. Upper Darby, PA:        U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest        Experiment Station. 19 p.  [10924]

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Cultivation

The preference is full to partial sunlight and moist to dry conditions that are well-drained. Many soil types are tolerated, including those that are loamy, sandy, or rocky.
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© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Uses

Trees of downy serviceberry are generally not large enough for sawtimber but they have been used for pulpwood. The wood is extremely heavy and hard and is occasionally made into tool handles. Cree Indians prized it for making arrows.

At least 40 bird species (for example, mockingbirds, cardinals, cedar waxwings, towhees, Baltimore orioles) eat the fruit of Amelanchier species. Mammals that either eat the fruit or browse the twigs and leaves of downy serviceberry include squirrels, rabbits, chipmunks, mice, voles, foxes, black bears, deer, and elk. The fruits taste similar to blueberry – they are eaten fresh or cooked in pastries or puddings.

The trees are used as ornamentals and many cultivars have been selected for variation in growth habit, flower size and color, and leaf color. The fall foliage blends orange and gold with red and green. It grows in partial shade to full sun, preferring moist but well-drained soil but will also grow in dry sites.

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USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center & Biota of North America Program

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Wikipedia

Amelanchier arborea

Amelanchier arborea (downy serviceberry[1] or common serviceberry[2]), is native to eastern North America from the Gulf Coast north to Thunder Bay in Ontario and Lake St. John in Quebec, and west to Texas and Minnesota.[1]

Amelanchier arborea is generally 5–12 metres (16–39 ft) tall. Occasionally, it can grow up to 20 metres (66 ft) tall and reach into the overstory. The trunk can be up to 15 cm diameter (rarely to 40 centimetres (16 in) diameter). The bark is smooth and gray.[3][4]

The buds are slender with a pointed tip, and usually more than two scales visible. The leaves are ovate or elliptical, 4–8 centimetres (1.6–3.1 in) (rarely 10 centimetres (3.9 in)) long and 2.5–4 centimetres (0.98–1.6 in) wide, with pointed tips and finely serrated margins. A characteristic useful for identification is that the young leaves emerge downy on the underside. The fall color is variable, from orange-yellow to pinkish or reddish.[3][4]

Flower details

It has perfect flowers that are 15–25 millimetres (0.59–0.98 in) diameter, with 5 petals, emerging during budbreak in early spring. The petals are white. Flowers are produced on pendulous racemes 3–5 centimetres (1.2–2.0 in) long with 4-10 flowers on each raceme. The flowers are pollinated by bees. The fruit is a reddish-purple pome, resembling a small apple in shape. They ripen in summer and are very popular with birds.[3][4][5]

It also commonly hybridizes with other species of Amelanchier, and identification can be very difficult as a result.

Cultivation[edit]

This species tolerates varying light levels, but is at its best in full sun. It requires good drainage and air circulation and should be watered during drought. It is often confused with other species in the nursery trade. Propagation is by seed, divisions and grafting.

The fruit is drier than some other serviceberries, and it is harvested locally for pies and jams; they were also used by Native Americans to make bread.[citation needed]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Amelanchier arborea". Germplasm Resources Information Network. Retrieved November 24, 2004. 
  2. ^ "Amelanchier arborea (Michx. f.) Fernald common serviceberry". USDA. Plants Profile. Retrieved November 24, 2004. 
  3. ^ a b c "Amelanchier arborea". Missouriplants. Retrieved November 24, 2004. 
  4. ^ a b c Amelanchier arborea. Trees of Wisconsin. 
  5. ^ Bioimages: Amelanchier arborea images
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

More info for the term: fern

The currently accepted scientific name for downy serviceberry is
Amelanchier arborea (Michx.) Fern.( Rosaceae) [4]. Downy serviceberry
hybridizes with the following species [4]:

A. humilis Wieg.
A. canadensis (L.) Medic.
A. laevis Wieg.
A. bartramiana (Tausch) Roemer

Hybridization is common and usually produces fertile offspring. Authors
differ in their treatment of the hybrids [20].
  • 4.  Fernald, Merritt Lyndon. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. [Corrections        supplied by R. C. Rollins]
  • 20.  Soper, James H.; Heimburger, Margaret L. 1982. Shrubs of Ontario. Life        Sciences Misc. Publ. Toronto, ON: Royal Ontario Museum. 495 p.  [12907]

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Common Names

downy serviceberry
Juneberry
shadbush
shadblow
sugarplum

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Synonyms

Amelanchier canadensis L.

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