The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Baird, J.R. and J.W. Thieret. 1989. The Medlar (Mespilus germanica, Rosaceae) from Antiquity to Obscurity. Economic Botany 43(3): 328-372.
  • Jørgensen, P. M. & C. Ulloa Ulloa. 1994. Seed plants of the high Andes of Ecuador---A checklist. AAU Rep. 34: 1–443. External link.
  • Jørgensen, P. M. & S. León-Yánez. (eds.) 1999. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 75: i–viii, 1–1181. External link.
  • L. 1753. In: Sp. pl. 1. 478
  • Lo, E.Y.Y., S. Stefanović, and T.A. Dickinson. 2007. Molecular Reappraisal of Relationships Between Crataegus and Mespilus (Rosaceae, Pyreae)—Two Genera or One? Systematic Botany 32(3): 596-616.
  • Lo, Eugenia Y. Y., Sasa Stefanovic, and Timothy A. Dickinson. 2007. Molecular reappraisal of relationships between Crataegus and Mespilus (Rosaceae, Pyreae) - two genera or one?. Systematic Botany, vol. 32, no. 3. 596-616
  • Marticorena C & R Rodríguez . 1995-2005. Flora de Chile. Vols 1, 2(1-3). Ed. Universidad de Concepción, Concepción. 351 pp., 99 pp., 93 pp., 128 pp. Matthei O. 1995. Manual de las malezas que crecen en Chile. Alfabeta Impresores. 545 p.
  • Phipps, J. B. 1990. Mespilus canescens a new Rosaceous endemic from Arkansas. Systematic Botany 15: 26-32.
  • Phipps, J.B., N.F. Weeden, and E.E. Dickson. Isozyme Evidence for the Naturalness of Mespilus L. (Rosaceae, Subfam. Maloideae). Systematic Botany 16(3): 546-552.
  • Pollman, B. and S. Jacomet. 2012. First evidence of Mespilus germanica L. (medlar) in Roman Switzerland. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 21(1): 61-68.
  • Vaughan, J.G. and C.A. Geissler. 1997. The New Oxford Book of Food Plants (revised and updated edition). Oxford University Press, New York.
  • Wilson K.L. & Berendsohn W.G. (eds) (2013). IOPI Global Plant Checklist (version 10.0, Aug 2007). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.


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