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Brief Summary

Medlar (Mespilus germanica) is native to western Asia and possibly southeastern Europe (Baird and Thieret 1989; Phipps et al. 1991), although it spread throughout Europe long ago. Pollman and Jacomet (2012) report finds of Mespilus seeds from the 2nd century A.D. in Switzerland and summarize the archaeobotanical evidence of Mespilus fruit stones in central Europe during Roman times (the species is presumed to have been brought there by the occupying Romans). Baird and Thieret (1989) provide an extensive review of not only the biology, history, and economic botany of Medlar, but also its occurrence in literature. They lament the apparent slide of this species into relative obscurity during the past century.

The Medlar fruit is remarkable in that the 5 seed vessels are visible in the eye of the fruit because the fruit is set in the receptacle as in a gaping cup around the rim of which stand 5 conspicuous calyx lobes ("calyx" refers collectively to a flower's sepals). The fruit is rich in sugars (around 11%) and is a good source of potassium, but it is quite low in Vitamin C (2 mg per 100 g). The fruit is usually allowed to become partly rotten, soft and brown, to make it palatable (see Baird and Thieret 1989 for a discussion of the ripening of Medlar fruit). At one time, these fruits were commonly eaten with port wine at the end of a meal. They may be used to make jam. Medlar is a spreading tree that may be shaped somewhat by the wind. The wild tree has thorns, but cultivated forms are thornless. Flowers are borne at the ends of short young shoots in late spring and early summer. (Vaughan and Geissler 1997)

Curiously, an apparent second species in the genus Mespilus was recognized from Arkansas (United States) in 1990 (Phipps 1990; Phipps et al. 1991). However, Lo et al. (2007) have argued that this is probably a nothospecies (i.e., the result of hybridization between two other species) and placed it in the genus Crataegus, along with M. germanica (see Lo et al. 2007 for details).

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In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / pathogen
Armillaria mellea s.l. infects and damages Mespilus germanica

Foodplant / open feeder
epiphyllous larva of Caliroa cerasi grazes on leaf of Mespilus germanica
Remarks: season: 6-9

Foodplant / saprobe
long covered, but eventually erumpent through fissure pycnidium of Phomopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Diaporthe eres is saprobic on dead fruit of Mespilus germanica

Foodplant / pathogen
Erwinia amylovora infects and damages leaf of Mespilus germanica

Foodplant / gall
aecium of Gymnosporangium confusum causes gall of live fruit of Mespilus germanica
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / miner
larva of Magdalis barbicornis mines below cambium of dead twig of Mespilus germanica

Foodplant / pathogen
Monilinia fructigena infects and damages live, brown-rotten fruit of Mespilus germanica

Foodplant / pathogen
Monilinia laxa infects and damages live, brown-rotten fruit of Mespilus germanica

Foodplant / spot causer
sclerotium of Monilinia mespili causes spots on dead, fallen, overwintering leaf of Mespilus germanica
Remarks: season: winter

Foodplant / web feeder
communal larva of Neurotoma saltuum feeds from web on leaf of Mespilus germanica

Foodplant / pathogen
scattered or clustered, immersed, then semi-immersed, finally superficial pycnidium of Phomopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Phomopsis perniciosa infects and damages cankered fruit of Mespilus germanica

Foodplant / parasite
Phyllactinia mali parasitises Mespilus germanica

Foodplant / parasite
Podosphaera clandestina var. clandestina parasitises Mespilus germanica

Foodplant / parasite
Podosphaera leucotricha parasitises Mespilus germanica
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Rhynchites aequatus feeds within fruit of Mespilus germanica

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Rhynchites pauxillus feeds within leaf (midrib) of Mespilus germanica


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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Crataegus germanica

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 10
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)


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Barcode data: Mespilus germanica

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.

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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Mespilus germanica

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)


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Default rating: 2.5 of 5


Mespilus germanica

"Medlar" redirects here. For other uses, see Medlar (disambiguation).

Mespilus germanica, known as the medlar or common medlar, is a large shrub or small tree, and the name of the fruit of this tree. The fruit has been cultivated since Roman times, and is unusual in being available in winter, and in being eaten when bletted. It is eaten raw and in a range of dishes. When the genus Mespilus is included in the genus Crataegus, the correct name for this species is Crataegus germanica Kuntze.

Origins and related species[edit]

Despite its Latin name, which means German or Germanic medlar, it is indigenous to southwest Asia and also southeastern Europe, especially the Black Sea coasts of Bulgaria and of modern Turkey. It may have been cultivated for as long as 3000 years.[1] The ancient Greek geographer Strabo refers to a μέσπιλον (mespilon) in Geographica, book 16, Chapter 4. [2]

Flower with long persistent sepals
The flower has long sepals that remain on the fruit

Until recently, Mespilus germanica was the only known species of medlar. However, in 1990, a new species was discovered in North America, now named Mespilus canescens. The loquat, Eriobotrya japonica, is more distantly related than genera such as Crataegus, Amelanchier, Peraphyllum, and Malacomeles,[3] but was once thought to be closely related, and is still sometimes called the 'Japanese medlar'.

From an extensive study of literature and plant specimens, Kazimierz Browicz concluded that the[1]

true homeland [of Mespilus germanica] is only in the south-eastern part of the Balkan peninsula, in Asia Minor, on the Caucasus, Crimea, northern Iran and possibly also in Turkmenia.

Description and ecology[edit]

Mespilus germanica requires warm summers and mild winters and prefers sunny, dry locations and slightly acidic soil. Under ideal circumstances, the deciduous plant grows up to 8 metres (26 ft) tall. Generally, it is shorter and more shrub-like than tree-like. With a lifespan of 30–50 years, the medlar tree is rather short-lived. Its bark is greyish brown with deep vertical cracks forming rectangular plates that tend to lift off. The leaves are dark green and elliptic, 8–15 centimetres (3.1–5.9 in) long and 3–5 centimetres (1.2–2.0 in) wide. The leaves are densely hairy (pubescent) below, and turn red in autumn before falling. It is found across Southern Europe where it is generally rare. It is reported to be naturalized in some woods in Southeast England, but is found in few gardens.[4]

The flowers have five broadly ovate white petals.[4] The flowers appear in late spring, are hermaphrodite, pollinated by bees, and self-fertile.[5] The flower is 6 centimetres (2.4 in) wide. The reddish-brown fruit is a pome, 2–3 centimetres (0.79–1.18 in) diameter, with wide-spreading persistent sepals around a central pit, giving a 'hollow' appearance to the fruit.[4]

Cultivation and uses[edit]

Fruit cut in half showing brown 'bletting' which makes it edible
Bletting begins on one side of the fruit. Bletted flesh is brown; ripe but unbletted flesh is white.

The medlar was already being cultivated about three thousand years ago in the Caspian Sea region of northern Iran and Azerbaijan. It was introduced to Greece around 700 BC, and to Rome about 200 BC. It was an important fruit plant during Roman and medieval times. By the 17th and 18th centuries, however, it had been superseded by other fruits, and is little cultivated today. M. germanica pomes are one of the few fruits that become edible in winter, making it an important tree for gardeners who wish to have fruit available all year round. M. germanica plants can be grafted on to the rootstock of another species, for example the pear, quince, or hawthorn, to improve their performance in different soils.[6]

Mespilus germanica fruits are hard, acidic, and high in bitter tannins. They become edible after being softened, 'bletted', by frost, or naturally in storage given sufficient time. Once softening begins, the skin rapidly takes on a wrinkled texture and turns dark brown, and the inside reduces to the consistency and flavour reminiscent of apple sauce. This process can confuse those new to medlars, as a softened fruit looks as if it has spoiled.[7][8]

Once bletted, the fruit can be eaten raw and is often eaten as a dessert, for example with cheese or tarts,[9] or used to make medlar jelly[10] and wine. Another dish is "medlar cheese", which is similar to lemon curd, being made with the fruit pulp, eggs, and butter. So-called medlar tea is usually not made from M. germanica but from wolfberry or goji, which is sometimes called "red medlar".[11]

Cultivars of Mespilus germanica that are grown for their fruit include 'Hollandia', 'Nottingham', and 'Russian',[12] the large-fruited variety 'Dutch' (also known as 'Giant' or 'Monstrous'), 'Royal', 'Breda giant', and 'Large Russian'.[13]

In Iran, the fruits, leaves, bark and wood of the tree have been used as medicines for ailments including diarrhoea, bloating of the stomach, throat abscesses and fever.[14]

In literature[edit]

The pome fruit with an open pit and long sepals


A fruit which is rotten before it is ripe, the medlar is used figuratively in literature as a symbol of prostitution or premature destitution. For example, in the Prologue to The Reeve's Tale, Geoffrey Chaucer's character laments his old age, comparing himself to the medlar, which he names using the slang term "open-arse":

This white top writeth myne olde yeris;
Myn herte is mowled also as myne heris —
But if I fare as dooth an open-ers.
That ilke fruyt is ever lenger the wers,
Til it be roten in mullok or in stree.
We olde men, I drede, so fare we:
Til we be roten, kan we nat be rype;


In William Shakespeare's Timon of Athens, Apemantus forces an apple upon Timon: "The middle of humanity thou never knewest, but the extremity of both ends. When thou wast in thy gilt and perfume, they mock'd thee for too much curiosity; in thy rags thou know'st none, but art despised for the contrary. There's a medlar for thee; eat it", perhaps including a pun on "meddler", one who meddles in affairs, as well as on rottenness. (IV.iii.300-305).

In Measure for Measure, Lucio excuses his denial of past fornication because "they would else have married me to the rotten medlar." (IV.iii.171).

In As You Like It, Rosalind makes a complicated pun involving grafting her interlocuter with the trees around her which bear love letters and with a medlar "I'll graff it with you, and then I shall graff it with a medlar. Then it will be the earliest fruit i' th' country; for you'll be rotten ere you be half ripe, and that's the right virtue of the medlar." (III.ii.116-119).

The most famous reference to medlars, often bowdlerized until modern editions accepted it, appears in Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, when Mercutio laughs at Romeo's unrequited love for his mistress Rosaline (II, 1, 34-38):

Now will he sit under a medlar tree,
And wish his mistress were that kind of fruit
As maids call medlars, when they laugh alone.
O Romeo, that she were, O that she were
An open-arse and thou a pop'rin pear!

In the 16th and 17th centuries, medlars were bawdily called "open-arses" because of the shape of the fruits, inspiring boisterous or humorously indecent puns in many Elizabethan and Jacobean plays.

Other 16th- and 17th-century authors[edit]

In Miguel de Cervantes' Don Quixote the eponymous hero and Sancho Panza "Stretch themselves out in the middle of a field and stuff themselves with acorns or medlars."

Thomas Dekker also draws a saucy comparison in his play The Honest Whore: "I scarce know her, for the beauty of her cheek hath, like the moon, suffered strange eclipses since I beheld it: women are like medlars, no sooner ripe but rotten."

Another reference can be found in Thomas Middleton's A Trick to Catch the Old One in the character of Widow Medler, impersonated by a courtesan, hence the following pun: "Who? Widow Medler? She lies open to much rumour." (II, 2, 59).

Modern literature[edit]

In modern literature, some writers have mentioned this fruit:

Saki uses medlars in his short stories, which often play on the decay of Edwardian society. In "The Peace of Mowsle Barton", the outwardly quiet farmstead features a medlar tree and corrosive hatred. In "The Boar Pig", the titular animal, Tarquin Superbus, is the point of contact between society ladies cheating to get into the garden party of the season and a not entirely honest young schoolgirl who lures him away by strategically throwing well-bletted medlars: "Come, Tarquin, dear old boy; you know you can't resist medlars when they're rotten and squashy."

D. H. Lawrence: "Wineskins of brown morbidity, autumnal excrementa ... an exquisite odour of leave taking".

Vladimir Nabokov in Ada or Ardor briefly mentions a poet named Max Mispel, "another botanical name".

C.J. Sansom: in Dark Fire refers to "... medlar orchard. The white scentless blossoms of that strange fruit, which must be left to hang on the tree until it decays ..... "

Italian novelist Giovanni Verga's Naturalist narrative I Malavoglia is titled The House by the Medlar Tree in the English translation.


  1. ^ a b Baird, J.R.; Thieret, J.W. (1989). The Medlar (Mespilus germanica, Rosaceae) from antiquity to obscurity. Economic Botany. 43(3): 328–372. preview
  2. ^
  3. ^ Campbell, C.S.; Evans, R.C.; Morgan, D.R.; Dickinson, T.A.; Arsenault, M.P. (2007). "Phylogeny of subtribe Pyrinae (formerly the Maloideae, Rosaceae): Limited resolution of a complex evolutionary history". Plant Systematics and Evolution 266 (1–2): 119–145. doi:10.1007/s00606-007-0545-y. 
  4. ^ a b c Mitchell, Alan (1978). A Field Guide to the Trees of Britain and Northern Europe (2 ed.). Collins. p. 277. 
  5. ^ "Plants for a Future". 
  6. ^ "Medlar". Royal Horticultural Society. 2011. Retrieved 8 July 2013. 
  7. ^ Glew, R.H.; Ayaz, F.A.; Sanz, C.; VanderJagt, D.J.; Huang, H.S.; Chuang, L.T.; Strnad, M. (2003). "Changes in sugars, organic acids and amino acids in medlar (Mespilus germanica L.) during fruit development and maturation". Food Chemistry 83 (3): 363–369. doi:10.1016/s0308-8146(03)00097-9. 
  8. ^ Rop, O.; Sochor, J.; Jurikova, T.; Zitka, O.; Skutkova, H.; Mlcek, J.; Salas, P.; Krska, B.; Babula, P.; Adam, V.; Kramarova, D.; Beklova, M.; Provaznik, I.; Kizek, R. (2011). "Effect of Five Different Stages of Ripening on Chemical Compounds in Medlar (Mespilus germanica L.)". Molecules 16 (74-91). doi:10.3390/molecules16010074. 
  9. ^ Martin, James. "Medlars recipes". British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 8 July 2013. 
  10. ^ "Nigel Slater on... medlars". Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 8 July 2013. 
  11. ^ McAdam, Diana (12 October 2007). "Goji berries: The new superfruit". The (Daily) Telegraph. Retrieved 8 July 2013. 
  12. ^ Phipps, J.B.; O’Kennon, R.J.; Lance, R.W. 2003. Hawthorns and medlars. Royal Horticultural Society, Cambridge, U.K.
  13. ^ Glowinski, L. 1991. The complete book of fruit growing in Australia. Thomas C. Lothian Pty Ltd, Port Melbourne, Victoria.
  14. ^ Bibalani, Ghassem Habibi; Mosazadeh-Sayadmahaleh, Fatemeh (February 2012). "Medicinal benefits and usage of medlar ( Mespilus germanica ) in Gilan Province (Roudsar District), Iran". Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 6 (7): 1155–1159. doi:10.5897/jmpr11.661. 
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