Overview

Brief Summary

Prunus persica var. nucipersica, the nectarine, is a small tree in the Rosaceae (rose family), which is a cultivated variety of the peach (P. persica). The fruits are similar to peaches, but are smooth, lacking the hairy fuzz characteristic of peaches, and the fruits are often smaller (although large-fruited cultivars have been developed). The nectarine is now cultivated in temperate regions worldwide for its fruit and flowers, and has increased in cultivation and popularity since the introduction of various white nectarine cultivars in the U.S. starting in the early 1990s.

P. persica is native to China, where it has long history of cultivation, dating back to the 10th century B.C., but nectarines appear to be of more recent origin, and are not mentioned in botanical accounts until the 1500s. The term “nectarine” was used to refer to a hairless peach, rather than to a particular cultivar, by Darwin, who noted some instances in which a peach tree would yield nectarines, or peaches and nectarines on the same tree. However, varieties now grown as P. persica var. nucipersica, generally produce only smooth nectarines.

Nectarine trees are similar in appearance to peach trees, with long, hairless, elliptic or oblong-lanceloate leaves, 9 to 16 cm (3.5 to 6 in) long. The 5-petalled flowers pink and usually occur singly, although occasionally in clusters of 2 or 3. The fruit is a smooth-skinned, fleshy drupe, often 5 to 8 cm (2 to 3 in) in diameter, or sometimes more, with a stony, flattened pit.

Nectarines, which are high in vitamin C and niacin, as well as potassium, are eaten fresh or prepared in juices, jams, sorbets, and numerous baked goods, or often preserved by canning or sometimes drying. Peaches may be cooked into fruit soups and compotes, or used as a flavoring in or condiment for meat dishes.

The FAO estimates that the total commercial harvest of peaches and nectarines in 2010 was 20.3 million metric tons, harvested from 1.5 million hectares worldwide. China is the leading producer, responsible for approximately half global harvest, followed by the Italy, Spain, and the U.S. Within the U.S., nectarines accounted for 16% of the total acreage of peaches and nectarines in 2002. Virtually all of the commercial U.S. production of nectarines is in California.

(Bailey et al. 1976, Boriss and Brunke 2006, Brunke 2002, Everett 1981, FAOSTAT 2012, Hedrick 1919, van Wyk 2005.)

  • Bailey, L.H., E.Z. Bailey, and the L.H. Bailey Hortatorium. 1976. Hortus Third: A concise dictionary of plants cultivated in the United States and Canada. New York: Macmillan. p. 918.
  • Boriss, H., and H. Brunke. 2006. Commodity Profile: Peaches and Nectarines. University of California Davis. Agricultural Marketing Resource Center, Agricultural Issues Center. Retrieved 24 Feb 2012 from http://aic.ucdavis.edu/profiles/Peach-2006B.pdf.
  • Brunke, H. 2002. Commodity Profile with an Emphasis on International Trade: Peaches and Nectarines. Iowa State University. Agricultural Marketing Resource Center. Retrieved 24 Feb 2012 from http://www.agmrc.org/media/cms/ccppeaches_7D22844F1ABB5.pdf.
  • Everett, T.H. 1981. “Prunus.” The New York Botanical Garden Illustrated Encyclopedia of Horticulture 8: 2820–2830.
  • FAOSTAT. 2012. Searchable online statistical database from Food and Agriculture Division of the United Nations. Retrieved 24 Feb 2012 from http://faostat.fao.org/site/567/DesktopDefault.aspx?PageID=567#ancor.
  • Hedrick, U.P., ed. 1919. Sturtevant’s Notes on Edible Plants. State of New York. Dept of Agriculture. 27th annual report, vol. 2, part II. Albany, NY: J.B. Lyon Co. pp. 462–464.
  • van Wyk, B.-E. 2005. “Prunus persica.Food Plants of the World: An Illustrated Guide. Portland, OR: Timber Press. p. 310.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Trees 5–8 m tall. Branches purple, glabrous; branchlets pale red, robust, glabrous. Winter buds purplish red, usually glabrous. Stipules linear, margin glandular, apex long acuminate. Petiole 1–1.3 cm, glabrous, apex often with 1 or 2 large nectaries on either side; leaf blade oblong-obovate, oblong-lanceolate, or rarely elliptic, 7–10 × 3–5 cm, glabrous, abaxially pale green, adaxially dark green, base cuneate to broadly cuneate, margin conspicuously crenate or sometimes inconspicuously biserrate, apex acuminate to acute; midvein and secondary veins abaxially conspicuous, adaxially conspicuously impressed, at a less than 45° angle with each other. Flowers 2 or 3 in a fascicle, rarely solitary, 1.5–2 cm in diam. Pedicel 2–5 mm, glabrous. Hypanthium outside glabrous. Sepals oblong, glabrous, margin glandular, apex obtuse. Petals white, oblong, base cuneate and shortly clawed, apex obtuse. Ovary glabrous. Stigma disc-shaped. Drupe red, appressed globose, 3–5(–6) cm in diam., glabrous; mesocarp pale yellow, fragrant; endocarp small, depressed globose, longitudinally grooved. Fl. May, fr. Jun–Jul.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Persica simonii Decaisne; Prunus persica (Linnaeus) Batsch var. nectarina Maximowicz.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat & Distribution

Native in Hebei; widely cultivated in N China.
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Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / pathogen
Armillaria mellea s.l. infects and damages Prunus persica var nectarina

Foodplant / shot hole causer
Clasterosporium dematiaceous anamorph of Clasterosporium carpophilum causes shot holes on live leaf of Prunus persica var nectarina

Foodplant / pathogen
colony of Fusicladium carpophilum infects and damages live, lesioned twig of Prunus persica var nectarina

Foodplant / pathogen
Monilinia fructigena infects and damages live, brown-rotten fruit of Prunus persica var nectarina

Foodplant / pathogen
Monilinia laxa infects and damages live, wilted flower of Prunus persica var nectarina

Foodplant / saprobe
Mucor piriformis is saprobic on rotting fruit of Prunus persica var nectarina

Foodplant / sap sucker
Myzus persicae sucks sap of live, severely curled leaf of Prunus persica var nectarina
Remarks: season: spring
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / sap sucker
Parthenolecanium corni sucks sap of live shoot of Prunus persica var nectarina
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / spot causer
Plum Line Pattern virus causes spots on live leaf of Prunus persica var nectarina

Foodplant / pathogen
Plum Pox virus infects and damages grooved, pitted, banded fruit of Prunus persica var nectarina

Foodplant / parasite
Podosphaera pannosa parasitises Prunus persica var nectarina
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / spot causer
Prunus Necrotic Ringspot virus causes spots on live leaf of Prunus persica var nectarina

Foodplant / shot hole causer
punctiform sporodochium of Stigmina dematiaceous anamorph of Stigmina carpophila causes shot holes on live leaf of Prunus persica var nectarina
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / gall
infection of Taphrina deformans causes gall of curled, reddened leaf of Prunus persica var nectarina
Remarks: season: 6-7
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / spot causer
hypophyllous uredium of Tranzschelia discolor causes spots on live leaf of Prunus persica var nectarina
Remarks: season: 7-9
Other: minor host/prey

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Prunus persica var nucipersica

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Wikipedia

Prunus simonii

Prunus simonii, called apricot plum and Simon plum, is a tree in the genus Prunus. It was first described by Elie-Abel Carrière in 1872 and is native to Hebei province, China.[1] The species is not known in a truly wild state.[2] It has been important for breeding commercial plum cultivars from crosses with other species of the genus Prunus.[3][4] The species is named for Gabriel Eugène Simon (1829–1896), a French botanist and diplomat who sent pits to the Paris Museum in the early 1860s while he was representing the French government in China.[5][6][7][8] Beginning about 1881, the species became commonly known in the United States; having been introduced there from France.[5]

Description[edit]

Prunus simonii is a small deciduous tree growing to about 6 meters (20 ft) in height.[2] The flowers produce almost no pollen; the fruit varies in quality, can be bitter or pleasant to eat, and is flat in shape.[2][9] Just like an apricot, the fruit flesh clings tightly to the pit. The taste is often bitter. Fruit production is not particularly bountiful. The fruit is dark red[5] or "brick red".[10] The branches are slender and the leaves oblong.[11] In appearance, the fruit is flatter than most plums, looking "tomato-like".[3] The fruit is particularly aromatic, much more so than Prunus salicina, with a comparatively high level of hexyl acetate, which gives apples their aroma.[12]

Uses[edit]

Plant breeder Luther Burbank devoted a lot of work to hybridizing this species with the Japanese plum (Prunus salicina) and developed a number of cultivars from the hybrid.[13] Of these, the cultivar 'Climax' was particularly notable for its importance to the fruit shipping industry of California.[9] Other influential plum cultivars that Burbank developed with P. simonii ancestry include 'Maynard', 'Chalco', 'Santa Rosa', and 'Formosa'.[14] Those two species and the European species Prunus cerasifera have contributed the majority of the genetic constitution of modern Japanese-type plum cultivars, with lesser contributions from three native American species P. americana, P. angustifolia, and P. munsoniana.[15]

References[edit]

  1. ^ GRIN (May 18, 2011). "Prunus simonii Carrière". Taxonomy for Plants. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland: USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Retrieved February 1, 2014. 
  2. ^ a b c "Plants for a Future". Retrieved February 1, 2014. 
  3. ^ a b Burbank, Luther (2004) [1914]. New Plums and Prunes in the Process of Making. Barcelona: Athena University Press. p. 27. 
  4. ^ Frecon, Jerome L.; Ward, Daniel L. (2012). "Fruit Notes". Fruit Notes 77: 12–19. 
  5. ^ a b c Bailey, Liberty Hyde (1893). Four Types of New Fruits. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station. pp. 34–37. 
  6. ^ Gledhill, D. (2008). The Names of Plants. Cambridge University Press, p. 353.
  7. ^ Bretschneider, E. (1898). History of European Botanical Discoveries in China. London: Sampson Low, vol. 2, pp. 827-833.
  8. ^ Baltet, Charles (1895). L'horticulture dans les cinq parties du monde. Paris: Société nationale d'horticulture, p. 406.
  9. ^ a b Jordan, David Starr (1905). "Some Experiments of Luther Burbank". The Popular Science Monthly 66: 201–225. 
  10. ^ Hedrick, U.P. et al. (1910). The Plums of New York. p. 55. 
  11. ^ Waugh, Frank (2009) [1903]. Systematic Pomology. Bedford, MA: Applewood Books. p. 186. ISBN 978-1-4-290-1350-5. 
  12. ^ Gomez, Encarna; Ledbetter, Craig (1994). "Comparative Study of the Aromatic Profiles of Two Different Plum Species: Prunus salicina lindl and Prunus simonii L". Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 65 (1): 111–115. doi:10.1002/jsfa.2740650116. 
  13. ^ Jones, D. F. (1928). "Burbank's Results with Plums". Journal of Heredity 19 (8): 359–372. 
  14. ^ Burbank, Luther (1921). How Plants Are Trained to Work for Man V. New York: P. F. Collier and Son Co. p. 223. 
  15. ^ Boonprakob, Unaroj; Byrne, David H.; Graham, Charles J.; Okie, W.R.; Beckman, Thomas; Smith, Brian R. (2001). "Genetic Relationships among Cultivated Diploid Plums and Their Progenitors as Determined by RAPD Markers". Journal of American Horticultural Science 126 (4): 451–461. 
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Notes

Comments

This species is cultivated for its edible fruit and has many cultivars.
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