Overview

Comprehensive Description

Comments

This small rush to easy to overlook and it is very similar in appearance to the Northern Green Rush (Juncus alpinoarticulatus). There is some evidence that the Northern Green Rush is one of the parents of the polyploid Jointed Rush (Juncus articulatus). These two species can be distinguished by the shapes of their seed capsules
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Description

This perennial rush is 4-24" tall, often forming tufted plants. The erect to ascending stems are mostly medium green (sometimes reddish at their bases), glabrous, terete, and hollow. About 2-5 alternate leaves occur along each stem; they are 1½-5" long and up to 1.5 mm. across. The leaves are erect, ascending, or recurved; they are sheathed at their bases. The leaf blades are mostly medium green, glabrous, and linear-filiform in shape; they are terete to slightly flattened. The leaf blade interiors are hollow with occasional crosswalls (septa). Each stem terminates in an inflorescence consisting of an irregular panicle of clustered flowers; this inflorescence is 1½-6" long and up to one-half as much across, consisting of 3-30 clusters of flowers. The branches of the inflorescence (or rays) are straight, stiff, and variable in length; they are medium green, glabrous, and terete. Each branch terminates in a cluster of 3-18 flowers spanning 5-15 mm. across; at the base of each floral cluster, there are insignificant chaffy bracts. Each flower consists of 6 tepals (3 outer and 3 inner tepals) of about equal size and a 3-celled pistil with 3 stigmata. The stigmata are fuzzy white, while the anthers are pale yellow. The persistent tepals are 2-3 mm. long and lanceolate to ovate in shape with acute tips; they are greenish and sepaloid in appearance while the flowers bloom, becoming reddish brown to dark brown shortly afterward. The blooming period occurs during mid- to late summer for about 2-3 weeks for a colony of plants. The flowers are cross-pollinated by the wind. Shortly afterwards, the seed capsules develop, becoming reddish brown to dark brown at maturity. The seed capsules are 3-4 mm. long, ellipsoid, and 3-angled in shape; they have short beaks at their apices that are relatively conspicuous. Eventually, individual seed capsules divide into 3 parts, releasing their tiny seeds. These seeds are up to 0.5 mm. in length, pale brown, ellipsoid, and somewhat flattened in shape; their tips usually have tiny appendages, but they are not winged. The tiny seeds can be carried aloft by the wind or float to new areas on water. The root system is fibrous and rhizomatous, occasionally forming clonal offsets.
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Distribution

Range Description

The species occurs throughout much of the northern hemisphere, from the Canaries and Azores to North Africa, north to Scandinavia and east through Siberia, the Caucasus, the Middle East, the Indian sub-continent, Kazakhstan, Mongolia and China to the Amur and Primorskye regions of far eastern Russia, Kamchatka, Sakhalin, the Korean Peninsula, Japan and Viet Nam (and probably other parts of Indochina). It has apparently been introduced to Australia, New Zealand, some south Pacific islands and to Peru. It occurs more or less throughout Europe.
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Range and Habitat in Illinois

The Jointed Rush has been found in Cook County, Illinois, where it is rare (see Distribution Map). This rush may be native to the state, or it could be adventive from outside of the state. This rush is native to some areas of Eurasia, North Africa, and North America. Habitats include margins of streams and lakes, sandy ditches, sandy swales, sandy pannes, poorly drained areas along railroads, and poorly drained areas of bicycle paths. This rush often colonizes disturbed wetlands that are relatively open and barren.
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: Widespread in Eurasia, disjunct distributions in eastern and western boreal North America. Also in North Africa according to Hulten (B68HUL01AKUS).

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Gansu, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Xizang, Yunnan [Afghanistan, Bhutan, India, Kashmir, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia (E Siberia), Vietnam; Africa, Europe, North America].
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St. Pierre and Miquelon; B.C., N.B., Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.), N.S., Ont., Que., P.E.I.; Alaska, Ariz., Colo., Calif., Conn., Idaho, Ind., Ky., Maine, Mass., Mich., Minn., Nebr., Nev., N.H., N.J., N.Mex., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Oreg., Pa., R.I., S.Dak., Utah, Vt., Va., Wash., W.Va.; Eurasia.
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Distribution: Most of Europe, N. Africa, Central and S.W. Asia, to Pakistan and the Himalayas; eastern N. America; widely introduced reaching Australia and New Zealand.
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Temperate regions, W. Himalaya.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Perennial, shortly rhizomatous, greenish herb, (10-) 15-50 (-80) cm tall, erect to almost prostrate, sometimes rooting from the lower nodes, non-stoloniferaus; stem terete, faintly sulcate with 2-6 cauline leaves. Leaves shorter than stem linear transversely 15-25 septate-nodose, subterete, green, usually 1-2 mm broad; basal sheaths usually brownish, auricled. Inflorescence terminal, often richly and somewhat dichotomously branched, with many shortly stalked heads, each consisting of (4)6-10(-12) flowers, 5-10 mm across; lowest bract erect, usually c. half as long as the inflorescence, leafy. Flowers (2-)2.5-3 mm long, brownish to greenish, sessile; perianth segments lanceolate, acute inner subobtuse with broad whitish margins. Stamens 6, much shorter than the perianth, with anthers c. as long as the filaments. Capsules 34 mm long, 1.5-2 mm broad, oblong-ovoid or ellipsoid, usually contracted abruptly into a short beak, conspicuously exceeding the perianth, brownish to greenish, often lustrous, many seeded (3040); seeds c. 0.4(-0.5) mm long, ovoid or ellipsoid, brownish 2n=80.
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Elevation Range

2300-3800 m
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Description

Plants perennial, tufted or rhizome creeping, (10--)15--40(--60) cm tall. Stems terete, 0.8--1.5 mm in diam. Cataphylls absent to 2. Cauline leaves 2--6; leaf sheath auricles well developed, acute, free part ca. 2 mm, membranous; leaf blade terete or somewhat laterally compressed, 2.5--7.5(--10) cm × 0.8--1.4 mm, perfectly septate. Inflorescences usually broad; branches rigid, spreading; involucral bract erect to ascending, 0.7--3 cm; heads 5--30, hemispheric to toplike, 5--10(--15)-flowered. Perianth segments reddish brown with greenish midvein, lanceolate, 2.5--3 mm, subequal, apex acute. Stamens 6, 1/2--3/4 as long as perianth; filaments 0.7--0.9 mm; anthers oblong, 0.5--1 mm. Capsule dark brown, shiny, trigonous ovoid, 3--3.5 mm, apex sharply acute and tapered to a conspicuous tip. Seeds ovoid, 0.5--0.7 mm, reticulate. Fl. Jun--Jul, fr. Aug--Sep. 2 n = 80.
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Description

Herbs, perennial, rhizomatous to nearly cespitose, 0.5--6(--10) dm. Rhizomes 2--3 mm diam., not swollen. Culms erect to decumbent (and floating), terete, 1--3 mm diam., smooth. Cataphylls 1, maroon to straw-colored, apex acute to obtuse. Leaves: basal 0--2, cauline (1--)3--6; auricles 0.5--1 mm, apex rounded, scarious; blade green to straw-colored, terete, 3.5--12 cm x 0.5--1.1 mm. Inflorescences terminal panicles of 3--30(--50) heads, 3.5--8 cm, branches spreading; primary bract erect; heads 3--10-flowered, obpyramidal to hemispheric, 6--8 mm diam. Flowers: tepals green to straw-colored or dark brown, ovate to lanceolate, 1.8--3 mm; outer tepals with apex acute or acuminate; inner tepals with apex acute acuminate to obtuse; stamens 6, anthers equal to filament length. Capsules exserted ca. 1 mm beyond perianth, chestnut brown to dark brown, imperfectly 3-locular, ellipsoid or ovoid, 2.8--4 mm, apex acute proximal to beak, valves separating at dehiscence. Seeds obovoid, 0.5 mm, not tailed. 2n = 80.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Juncus lampocarpus Ehrhart ex Hoffmann; J. lampocarpus var. senescens Buchenau.
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Synonym

Juncus articulatus var. obtusatus Engelmann; J. articulatus var. stolonifer (Wohlleben) House; J. lampocarpus Ehrhart ex Hoffmann
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
The species will occur in most wetland types, but is particularly characteristic of seasonally inundated grazed pasture, moorland and the margins of water bodies. It will also occur in shallow freshwater, mesotrophic to eutrophic habitats on limestone or siliceous substrate from plains to mountains, including ponds, ditches, wet meadows, banks of small streams and springs.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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Range and Habitat in Illinois

The Jointed Rush has been found in Cook County, Illinois, where it is rare (see Distribution Map). This rush may be native to the state, or it could be adventive from outside of the state. This rush is native to some areas of Eurasia, North Africa, and North America. Habitats include margins of streams and lakes, sandy ditches, sandy swales, sandy pannes, poorly drained areas along railroads, and poorly drained areas of bicycle paths. This rush often colonizes disturbed wetlands that are relatively open and barren.
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Comments: Margins of ponds and lakes (B74WEL01AKUS).

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Wet meadows, sand, along rivers, edges of water along ditches; 1200--3700 m.
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Wet ground in ditches, lake and stream margins, and a variety of other habitats, often a calciphile; 0--3000m.
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Associations

Faunal Associations

Various insects feed on rushes (Juncus spp.) in wetlands. These species include the seed bugs Cymodema breviceps and Cymus angustatus, several leafhoppers (Euscelis aemulans, Limotettix bisoni, Limotettix cuneatus, Macrosteles potoria), the root-feeding aphid Prociphilus corrugatans, Livia maculipennis (Rush Psyllid), larvae of the introduced sawfly Eutomostethus luteiventris, and stem-boring larvae of two moths (Archanara subflava, Chilo forbesellus). The small size, coarse foliage, and tiny seeds of this rush limit its usefulness to vertebrate animals, although there is some evidence that the rhizomes and crowns of wetland rushes are eaten by the muskrat, while a dabbling duck, Anas crecca (Green-Winged Teal), feeds on their seedheads. The tiny seeds of Jointed Rush may be transported to new areas by the muddy feet and feathers of waterfowl, the muddy shoes of humans, and the tire treads of bikes.
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Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Aphanisticus emarginatus feeds on Juncus articulatus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Cistella fugiens is saprobic on dead inflorescence of Juncus articulatus
Remarks: season: 12-10

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, then revealed apothecium of Diplonaevia exigua is saprobic on dead Juncus articulatus
Remarks: season: 4-8

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / gall
sorus of Entorrhiza casparyana causes gall of live, galled root of Juncus articulatus
Remarks: season: 8

Foodplant / saprobe
sessile, shielded apothecium of Micropeziza karstenii is saprobic on dead stem of Juncus articulatus
Remarks: season: 7-12
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
sessile apothecium of Mollisia juncina is saprobic on dead Juncus articulatus
Remarks: season: 5-9

Foodplant / saprobe
pseudothecium of Pleospora aquatica is saprobic on Juncus articulatus
Remarks: season: 10

Foodplant / saprobe
numerous, immersed, more or less linearly arranged, fuscous, covered pycnidium of Septoria coelomycetous anamorph of Septoria junci is saprobic on dead leaf tip of Juncus articulatus
Remarks: season: 2-10

Plant / associate
larva of Trichopsomyia flavitarsis is associated with galled Juncus articulatus

Foodplant / parasite
telium of Uromyces junci parasitises live Juncus articulatus
Remarks: season: 7 onwards

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Fruiting mid summer--fall.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Juncus articulatus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Juncus articulatus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 7
Specimens with Barcodes: 9
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2011

Assessor/s
Allen, D.J.

Reviewer/s
Lansdown, R.V. & Smith, K.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is assessed as Least Concern as it is widespread with stable populations and does not face any major threats.
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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Reasons: Widespread common in much of Old World, with patchy distribution in North America. Tens of thousands of occurrences.

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Population

Population
The species is widespread and abundant throughout its range.

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats

There are no known past, ongoing or future threats to this species.

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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions

There are no conservation measures in place or needed.

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

The preference is full sun, wet to moist conditions, and calcareous soil containing sand, clay, or a combination of the two. Occasional inundation by shallow water is tolerated. This small rush is not competitive with larger ground flora on fertile soil. It is slightly weedy.
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Wikipedia

Juncus articulatus

Juncus articulatus - läikviljaline luga Keilas.jpg

Juncus articulatus is a species of rush known by the common name Jointleaf Rush, and more ambiguously as "Jointed Rush" which can also refer to J. kraussii from Australia . It is native to Eurasia and much of Canada and the United States. It grows in moist areas, such as wet sand, and thrives in calcareous soils. This is a perennial herb producing a mainly erect stem from a short rhizome. The stem may root at nodes, and it generally has one or more cylindrical leaves up to 10 centimeters long.

The inflorescence atop the stem has several branches with up to 25 clusters of up to 12 flowers each. Each individual flower has greenish to dark brown, pointed tepals 2 to 3 millimeters long, six stamens bearing anthers, and a protruding, feathery pistil. The fruit is a dark brown capsule with a pointed tip.

Horizontal internal joints may be seen or felt on the stem of the plant.

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Notes

Comments

Juncus articulatus hybridizes with J. brevicaudatus (= J. ´ xfulvescens Fernald), J. alpinus (= J. ´ xalpiniformis Fernald), J. nodosus, and J. canadensis

 Juncus articulatus var. obtusatus Engelmann appears to be intermediate with J. alpinus. It has spreading inflorescence branches but obtuse inner tepals. This may represent a backcross with J. alpinus. Recent evidence suggests that J. alpinus is a polyploid species with J. articulatus as one of its parents.

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Comments

A widely distributed and very variable species, known to have: (i) several ecotypes (Clapham et al, Fl.Brit. Isles 990, 1962); (ii) larger forms with 80 chromosomes and up to 18 flowers in each head; (iii) and hybrid, with sterile capsules and usually 3-6 flowers in each head.
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