Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: Occurs from Massachusetts west to Ontario and Minnesota south to Texas and and Georgia (Kartesz 1999).

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Ont.; Ala., Ark., Conn., Del., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ind., Kans., Ky., La., Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Okla., Pa., S.C., Tenn., Tex., Va., W.Va.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Herbs, perennial, not cespitose, rhizomatous, (3--)4.5--8(--9) dm. Rhizomes tuberous, 3--4 mm diam. Culms erect, terete, 2--3 mm diam., smooth. Cataphylls 0(--1), straw-colored, apex acute. Leaves: basal 1--2, cauline 2--4, auricles 0.5--3.5 mm, apex rounded, scarious; blade green to straw-colored, terete, 3--50 cm x 1--2 mm diam. Inflorescences terminal panicles of 2--10(--20) heads or a single head, 1--4(--10) cm, branches ascending; primary bract erect; heads 30--100-flowered, spheric, 8--10 mm diam. Flowers: tepals green to straw-colored, often red-tinted, lanceolate-subulate, apex acuminate; outer tepals 2.5--3.8 mm; inner tepals 2--3.2 mm; stamens 3, anthers 1/4--1/2 filament length. Capsules included, chestnut brown, 1-locular, obconic or ovoid, 1.8--2.7 mm, apex obtuse, valves separating at dehiscence, fertile throughout or only proximal to middle. Seeds ellipsoid to oblique-oblong, 0.3--0.4 mm, not tailed; cody clear to yellow-brown. 2n = 44.
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Ecology

Habitat

Damp clayey, peaty, or sandy soils, swamps, ditches, ponds, wet woods, wet prairies; 0--500m.
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Fruiting mid summer--fall.
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N1 - Critically Imperiled

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G4 - Apparently Secure

Reasons: Widespread and scattered in much of the eastern and south central United States in moist clayey or sandy soils. Rare at the northern edge of its range, and historical in West Virginia and New Jersey.

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